Xiao Hu, PhD

Associate Professor


My research program’s goal is to innovate intelligent informatics systems to enhance healthcare professionals’ ability in utilizing Big Clinical Data to achieve more precise assessment and anticipation of patient state changes. Our team’s core expertise lies in various physiological signal modeling and processing and developing machine learning models. Our projects are interdisciplinary in nature. We are keen in learning new clinical/physiological problems that can be approached using our core engineering expertise. We are capable of developing and validating prototypes of intelligent systems equipped with our algorithms. Our current projects cover problems derived from neurocritical care and neurosurgical care of patients as well as from general in-hospital patient monitoring.


Honors and Awards

Winner of NASA-Innocentive Challenge on Noninvasive Intracranial Pressure, Innocentive, 2013
Clinical and Translational Science Institute Scholar, UCLA, 2008-2010


Winters BD, Cvach MM, Bonafide CP, Hu X, Konkani A, O'Connor MF, Rothschild JM, Selby NM, Pelter MM, McLean B, Kane-Gill SL. Technological Distractions (Part 2): A Summary of Approaches to Manage Clinical Alarms With Intent to Reduce Alarm Fatigue. Crit Care Med. 2018 Jan; 46(1):130-137.
Fidler RL, Pelter MM, Drew BJ, Palacios JA, Bai Y, Stannard D, Aldrich JM, Hu X. Understanding heart rate alarm adjustment in the intensive care units through an analytical approach. PLoS One. 2017; 12(11):e0187855.
Kane-Gill SL, O'Connor MF, Rothschild JM, Selby NM, McLean B, Bonafide CP, Cvach MM, Hu X, Konkani A, Pelter MM, Winters BD. Technologic Distractions (Part 1): Summary of Approaches to Manage Alert Quantity With Intent to Reduce Alert Fatigue and Suggestions for Alert Fatigue Metrics. Crit Care Med. 2017 Sep; 45(9):1481-1488.
Shahriari Y, Fidler R, Pelter MM, Bai Y, Villaroman A, Hu X. Electrocardiogram Signal Quality Assessment Based on Structural Image Similarity Metric. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2018 Apr; 65(4):745-753.
Laurie SS, Vizzeri G, Taibbi G, Ferguson CR, Hu X, Lee SMC, Ploutz-Snyder R, Smith SM, Zwart SR, Stenger MB. Effects of short-term mild hypercapnia during head-down tilt on intracranial pressure and ocular structures in healthy human subjects. Physiol Rep. 2017 Jun; 5(11).
Harris PR, Zègre-Hemsey JK, Schindler D, Bai Y, Pelter MM, Hu X. Patient characteristics associated with false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2017; 13:499-513.
Meng L, Xiao J, Gudelunas K, Yu Z, Zhong Z, Hu X. Association of intraoperative cerebral and muscular tissue oxygen saturation with postoperative complications and length of hospital stay after major spine surgery: an observational study. Br J Anaesth. 2017 Apr 01; 118(4):551-562.
Ryu J, Ko N, Hu X, Shadden SC. Numerical Investigation of Vasospasm Detection by Extracranial Blood Velocity Ratios. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2017; 43(5-6):214-222.
Pelter MM, Stotts J, Spolini K, Nguyen J, Sin E, Hu X. Developing a Clinical Alarms Management Committee at an Academic Medical Center. Biomed Instrum Technol. 2017 02; 51(s2):21-29.
Arroyo-Palacios J, Rudz M, Fidler R, Smith W, Ko N, Park S, Bai Y, Hu X. Characterization of Shape Differences Among ICP Pulses Predicts Outcome of External Ventricular Drainage Weaning Trial. Neurocrit Care. 2016 12; 25(3):424-433.
Ding Q, Bai Y, Erol YB, Salas-Boni R, Zhang X, Hu X. Robust QRS peak detection by multimodal information fusion of ECG and blood pressure signals. Physiol Meas. 2016 Nov; 37(11):N84-N95.
Pelter MM, Fidler R, Hu X. Research: Association of Low-Amplitude QRSs with False-Positive Asystole Alarms. Biomed Instrum Technol. 2016 Sep-Oct; 50(5):329-35.
Pelter MM, Loranger D, Kozik TM, Fidler R, Hu X, Carey MG. Unplanned transfer from the telemetry unit to the intensive care unit in hospitalized patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. J Electrocardiol. 2016 Nov - Dec; 49(6):775-783.
Bai Y, Do D, Ding Q, Palacios JA, Shahriari Y, Pelter MM, Boyle N, Fidler R, Hu X. Is the Sequence of SuperAlarm Triggers More Predictive Than Sequence of the Currently Utilized Patient Monitor Alarms? IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2017 05; 64(5):1023-1032.
Miaskowski C, Cooper BA, Aouizerat B, Melisko M, Chen LM, Dunn L, Hu X, Kober KM, Mastick J, Levine JD, Hammer M, Wright F, Harris J, Armes J, Furlong E, Fox P, Ream E, Maguire R, Kearney N. The symptom phenotype of oncology outpatients remains relatively stable from prior to through 1 week following chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2017 May; 26(3).
Connolly M, Vespa P, Hu X. Characterization of Cerebral Vascular Response to EEG Bursts Using ICP Pulse Waveform Template Matching. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2016; 122:291-4.
Connolly M, Liou R, Vespa P, Hu X. Identification of an Intracranial Pressure (ICP) Response Function from Continuously Acquired Electroencephalographic and ICP Signals in Burst-Suppressed Patients. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2016; 122:225-8.
Bai Y, Sow D, Vespa P, Hu X. Real-Time Processing of Continuous Physiological Signals in a Neurocritical Care Unit on a Stream Data Analytics Platform. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2016; 122:75-80.
Hamilton R, Fuller J, Baldwin K, Vespa P, Hu X, Bergsneider M. Relative Position of the Third Characteristic Peak of the Intracranial Pressure Pulse Waveform Morphology Differentiates Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus Shunt Responders and Nonresponders. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2016; 122:339-45.
Ding Q, Bai Y, Tinoco A, Mortara D, Do D, Boyle NG, Pelter MM, Hu X. Developing new predictive alarms based on ECG metrics for bradyasystolic cardiac arrest. Physiol Meas. 2015 Dec; 36(12):2405-22.
Ryu J, Hu X, Shadden SC. A Coupled Lumped-Parameter and Distributed Network Model for Cerebral Pulse-Wave Hemodynamics. J Biomech Eng. 2015 Oct; 137(10):101009.
Fidler R, Bond R, Finlay D, Guldenring D, Gallagher A, Pelter M, Drew B, Hu X. Human factors approach to evaluate the user interface of physiologic monitoring. J Electrocardiol. 2015 Nov-Dec; 48(6):982-7.
Do DH, Hayase J, Tiecher RD, Bai Y, Hu X, Boyle NG. ECG changes on continuous telemetry preceding in-hospital cardiac arrests. J Electrocardiol. 2015 Nov-Dec; 48(6):1062-8.
Xue S, Yang H, Qiao J, Pu F, Jiang J, Hubbard K, Hekmatyar K, Langley J, Salarian M, Long RC, Bryant RG, Hu XP, Grossniklaus HE, Liu ZR, Yang JJ. Protein MRI contrast agent with unprecedented metal selectivity and sensitivity for liver cancer imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 May 26; 112(21):6607-12.
Connolly M, Vespa P, Pouratian N, Gonzalez NR, Hu X. Characterization of the relationship between intracranial pressure and electroencephalographic monitoring in burst-suppressed patients. Neurocrit Care. 2015 Apr; 22(2):212-20.
Salas-Boni R, Bai Y, Hu X. Cumulative Time Series Representation for Code Blue prediction in the Intensive Care Unit. AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc. 2015; 2015:162-7.
Kim S, Scalzo F, Telesca D, Hu X. Ensemble of sparse classifiers for high-dimensional biological data. Int J Data Min Bioinform. 2015; 12(2):167-83.
Drew BJ, Harris P, Zègre-Hemsey JK, Mammone T, Schindler D, Salas-Boni R, Bai Y, Tinoco A, Ding Q, Hu X. Insights into the problem of alarm fatigue with physiologic monitor devices: a comprehensive observational study of consecutive intensive care unit patients. PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e110274.
Bai Y, Do DH, Harris PR, Schindler D, Boyle NG, Drew BJ, Hu X. Integrating monitor alarms with laboratory test results to enhance patient deterioration prediction. J Biomed Inform. 2015 Feb; 53:81-92.
Salas-Boni R, Bai Y, Harris PR, Drew BJ, Hu X. False ventricular tachycardia alarm suppression in the ICU based on the discrete wavelet transform in the ECG signal. J Electrocardiol. 2014 Nov-Dec; 47(6):775-80.
Connolly M, He X, Gonzalez N, Vespa P, DiStefano J, Hu X. Reproduction of consistent pulse-waveform changes using a computational model of the cerebral circulatory system. Med Eng Phys. 2014 Mar; 36(3):354-63.
Hu X, Do D, Bai Y, Boyle NG. A case-control study of non-monitored ECG metrics preceding in-hospital bradyasystolic cardiac arrest: implication for predictive monitor alarms. J Electrocardiol. 2013 Nov-Dec; 46(6):608-15.
Asgari S, Vespa P, Hu X. Is there any association between cerebral vasoconstriction/vasodilatation and microdialysis Lactate to Pyruvate ratio increase? Neurocrit Care. 2013 Aug; 19(1):56-64.
Scalzo F, Alger JR, Hu X, Saver JL, Dani KA, Muir KW, Demchuk AM, Coutts SB, Luby M, Warach S, Liebeskind DS. Multi-center prediction of hemorrhagic transformation in acute ischemic stroke using permeability imaging features. Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Jul; 31(6):961-9.
Scalzo F, Hu X. Semi-supervised detection of intracranial pressure alarms using waveform dynamics. Physiol Meas. 2013 Apr; 34(4):465-78.
Xu P, Hu X, Yao D. Improved wavelet entropy calculation with window functions and its preliminary application to study intracranial pressure. Comput Biol Med. 2013 Jun; 43(5):425-33.
Tsiokos C, Hu X, Pouratian N. 200-300Hz movement modulated oscillations in the internal globus pallidus of patients with Parkinson's Disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2013 Jun; 54:464-74.
Gonzalez NR, Hamilton R, Bilgin-Freiert A, Dusick J, Vespa P, Hu X, Asgari S. Cerebral hemodynamic and metabolic effects of remote ischemic preconditioning in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2013; 115:193-8.
Asgari S, Gonzalez N, Subudhi AW, Hamilton R, Vespa P, Bergsneider M, Roach RC, Hu X. Continuous detection of cerebral vasodilatation and vasoconstriction using intracranial pulse morphological template matching. PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e50795.
Kim S, Hamilton R, Pineles S, Bergsneider M, Hu X. Noninvasive intracranial hypertension detection utilizing semisupervised learning. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2013 Apr; 60(4):1126-33.
Hu X, Gonzalez N, Bergsneider M. Steady-state indicators of the intracranial pressure dynamic system using geodesic distance of the ICP pulse waveform. Physiol Meas. 2012 Dec; 33(12):2017-31.
Hamilton R, Baldwin K, Fuller J, Vespa P, Hu X, Bergsneider M. Intracranial pressure pulse waveform correlates with aqueductal cerebrospinal fluid stroke volume. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012 Nov; 113(10):1560-6.
Lu J, Speier W, Hu X, Pouratian N. The effects of stimulus timing features on P300 speller performance. Clin Neurophysiol. 2013 Feb; 124(2):306-14.
Scalzo F, Liebeskind D, Hu X. Reducing false intracranial pressure alarms using morphological waveform features. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2013 Jan; 60(1):235-9.
Scalzo F, Hao Q, Alger JR, Hu X, Liebeskind DS. Regional prediction of tissue fate in acute ischemic stroke. Ann Biomed Eng. 2012 Oct; 40(10):2177-87.
Hu X, Sapo M, Nenov V, Barry T, Kim S, Do DH, Boyle N, Martin N. Predictive combinations of monitor alarms preceding in-hospital code blue events. J Biomed Inform. 2012 Oct; 45(5):913-21.
Scalzo F, Hamilton R, Asgari S, Kim S, Hu X. Intracranial hypertension prediction using extremely randomized decision trees. Med Eng Phys. 2012 Oct; 34(8):1058-65.
Scalzo F, Bergsneider M, Vespa PM, Martin NA, Hu X. Intracranial pressure signal morphology: real-time tracking. IEEE Pulse. 2012 Mar; 3(2):49-52.
Kasprowicz M, Bergsneider M, Czosnyka M, Hu X. Association between ICP pulse waveform morphology and ICP B waves. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2012; 114:29-34.
Hu X, Hamilton R, Baldwin K, Vespa PM, Bergsneider M. Automated extraction of decision rules for predicting lumbar drain outcome by analyzing overnight intracranial pressure. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2012; 114:207-12.
Asgari S, Vespa PM, Bergsneider M, Hu X. Latency relationships between cerebral blood flow velocity and intracranial pressure. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2012; 114:5-9.
Hamilton R, Dye J, Frew A, Baldwin K, Hu X, Bergsneider M. Quantification of pulsatile cerebrospinal fluid flow within the prepontine cistern. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2012; 114:191-5.
Hamilton RB, Baldwin K, Vespa P, Bergsneider M, Hu X. Subpeak regional analysis of intracranial pressure waveform morphology based on cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics in the cerebral aqueduct and prepontine cistern. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 2012:3935-8.
Glenn TC, Sherma AK, McArthur DL, Hu X, Hanuscin CR, Furreedan MS, Hovda DA, Vespa PM, Martin NA. The linear relationship between transcranial Doppler pulsatility indices and intracranial pressure is influenced by traumatic brain injury and vasospasm. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2012; 114:11-5.
Scalzo F, Asgari S, Kim S, Bergsneider M, Hu X. Bayesian tracking of intracranial pressure signal morphology. Artif Intell Med. 2012 Feb; 54(2):115-23.
Asgari S, Vespa P, Bergsneider M, Hu X. Lack of consistent intracranial pressure pulse morphological changes during episodes of microdialysis lactate/pyruvate ratio increase. Physiol Meas. 2011 Oct; 32(10):1639-51.
Asgari S, Bergsneider M, Hamilton R, Vespa P, Hu X. Consistent changes in intracranial pressure waveform morphology induced by acute hypercapnic cerebral vasodilatation. Neurocrit Care. 2011 Aug; 15(1):55-62.
Yang L, Zhao M, Peng C, Hu X, Feng H, Ji Z. Waveform descriptor for pulse onset detection of intracranial pressure signal. Med Eng Phys. 2012 Mar; 34(2):179-86.
Asgari S, Subudhi AW, Roach RC, Liebeskind DS, Bergsneider M, Hu X. An extended model of intracranial latency facilitates non-invasive detection of cerebrovascular changes. J Neurosci Methods. 2011 Apr 15; 197(1):171-9.
Kim S, Bergsneider M, Hu X. A systematic study of linear dynamic modeling of intracranial pressure dynamics. Physiol Meas. 2011 Mar; 32(3):319-36.
Kim S, Hu X, McArthur D, Hamilton R, Bergsneider M, Glenn T, Martin N, Vespa P. Inter-subject correlation exists between morphological metrics of cerebral blood flow velocity and intracranial pressure pulses. Neurocrit Care. 2011 Apr; 14(2):229-37.
Kim S, Scalzo F, Bergsneider M, Vespa P, Martin N, Hu X. Noninvasive intracranial pressure assessment based on a data-mining approach using a nonlinear mapping function. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2012 Mar; 59(3):619-26.
Scalzo F, Asgari S, Kim S, Bergsneider M, Hu X. Robust peak recognition in intracranial pressure signals. Biomed Eng Online. 2010 Oct 19; 9:61.
Kasprowicz M, Asgari S, Bergsneider M, Czosnyka M, Hamilton R, Hu X. Pattern recognition of overnight intracranial pressure slow waves using morphological features of intracranial pressure pulse. J Neurosci Methods. 2010 Jul 15; 190(2):310-8.
Hu X, Xu P, Asgari S, Vespa P, Bergsneider M. Forecasting ICP elevation based on prescient changes of intracranial pressure waveform morphology. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2010 May; 57(5):1070-8.
Hu X, Glenn T, Scalzo F, Bergsneider M, Sarkiss C, Martin N, Vespa P. Intracranial pressure pulse morphological features improved detection of decreased cerebral blood flow. Physiol Meas. 2010 May; 31(5):679-95.
Hu X, Xu P, Wu S, Asgari S, Bergsneider M. A data mining framework for time series estimation. J Biomed Inform. 2010 Apr; 43(2):190-9.
Asgari S, Bergsneider M, Hu X. A robust approach toward recognizing valid arterial-blood-pressure pulses. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed. 2010 Jan; 14(1):166-72.
Asgari S, Xu P, Bergsneider M, Hu X. A subspace decomposition approach toward recognizing valid pulsatile signals. Physiol Meas. 2009 Nov; 30(11):1211-25.
Xu P, Kasprowicz M, Bergsneider M, Hu X. Improved noninvasive intracranial pressure assessment with nonlinear kernel regression. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed. 2010 Jul; 14(4):971-8.
Sapo M, Wu S, Asgari S, McNair N, Buxey F, Martin N, Hu X. A comparison of vital signs charted by nurses with automated acquired values using waveform quality indices. J Clin Monit Comput. 2009 Oct; 23(5):263-71.
Scalzo F, Xu P, Asgari S, Bergsneider M, Hu X. Regression analysis for peak designation in pulsatile pressure signals. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2009 Sep; 47(9):967-77.
Hu X, Subudhi AW, Xu P, Asgari S, Roach RC, Bergsneider M. Inferring cerebrovascular changes from latencies of systemic and intracranial pulses: a model-based latency subtraction algorithm. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009 Apr; 29(4):688-97.
Hamilton R, Xu P, Asgari S, Kasprowicz M, Vespa P, Bergsneider M, Hu X. Forecasting intracranial pressure elevation using pulse waveform morphology. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2009; 2009:4331-4.
Hu X, Xu P, Scalzo F, Vespa P, Bergsneider M. Morphological clustering and analysis of continuous intracranial pressure. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2009 Mar; 56(3):696-705.
Xu P, Tian Y, Lei X, Hu X, Yao D. Equivalent charge source model based iterative maximum neighbor weight for sparse EEG source localization. Ann Biomed Eng. 2008 Dec; 36(12):2051-67.
Xu P, Bergsneider M, Hu X. Pulse onset detection using neighbor pulse-based signal enhancement. Med Eng Phys. 2009 Apr; 31(3):337-45.
Hu X, Xu P, Lee DJ, Vespa P, Baldwin K, Bergsneider M. An algorithm for extracting intracranial pressure latency relative to electrocardiogram R wave. Physiol Meas. 2008 Apr; 29(4):459-71.
Bergsneider M, Miller C, Vespa PM, Hu X. Surgical management of adult hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery. 2008 Feb; 62 Suppl 2:643-59; discussion 659-60.
Cattivelli FS, Sayed AH, Hu X, Lee D, Vespa P. Mathematical models of cerebral hemodynamics for detection of vasospasm in major cerebral arteries. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2008; 102:63-9.
Hu X, Xu P, Lee DJ, Paul V, Bergsneider M. Morphological changes of intracranial pressure pulses are correlated with acute dilatation of ventricles. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2008; 102:131-6.
Scalzo F, Xu P, Bergsneider M, Hu X. Nonlinear regression for sub-peak detection of intracranial pressure signals. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008; 2008:5411-4.
Xu P, Scalzo F, Bergsneider M, Vespa P, Chad M, Hu X. Wavelet entropy characterization of elevated intracranial pressure. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008; 2008:2924-7.
Hu X, Miller C, Vespa P, Bergsneider M. Adaptive computation of approximate entropy and its application in integrative analysis of irregularity of heart rate variability and intracranial pressure signals. Med Eng Phys. 2008 Jun; 30(5):631-9.
Hu X, Nenov V, Vespa P, Bergsneider M. Characterization of interdependency between intracranial pressure and heart variability signals: a causal spectral measure and a generalized synchronization measure. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2007 Aug; 54(8):1407-17.
Hu X, Nenov V, Bergsneider M, Glenn TC, Vespa P, Martin N. Estimation of hidden state variables of the Intracranial system using constrained nonlinear Kalman filters. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2007 Apr; 54(4):597-610.
Vespa PM, Miller C, Hu X, Nenov V, Buxey F, Martin NA. Intensive care unit robotic telepresence facilitates rapid physician response to unstable patients and decreased cost in neurointensive care. Surg Neurol. 2007 Apr; 67(4):331-7.
Hu X, Nenov V. A single-lead ECG enhancement algorithm using a regularized data-driven filter. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2006 Feb; 53(2):347-51.
Hu X, Nenov V, Glenn TC, Steiner LA, Czosnyka M, Bergsneider M, Martin N. Nonlinear analysis of cerebral hemodynamic and intracranial pressure signals for characterization of autoregulation. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2006 Feb; 53(2):195-209.
Hu X, Nenov V, Bergsneider M. Integrative analysis of intracranial pressure and R-R interval signals: a study of ICP B-wave using causal coherence. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2006; 1:464-7.
Hu X, Alwan AA, Rubinstein EH, Bergsneider M. Reduction of compartment compliance increases venous flow pulsatility and lowers apparent vascular compliance: implications for cerebral blood flow hemodynamics. Med Eng Phys. 2006 May; 28(4):304-14.
Hu X, Nenov V, Vespa P, Bergsneider M. Estimation of hidden state variables of the intracranial system using constrained nonlinear Kalman filters. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2005; 6:5631-4.
Hu X, Nenov V, Bergsneider M. Phase Coordination between Intracranial Pressure and Electrocardiogram Signals. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2005; 1:45-8.
Bergsneider M, Yang I, Hu X, McArthur DL, Cook SW, Boscardin WJ. Relationship between valve opening pressure, body position, and intracranial pressure in normal pressure hydrocephalus: paradigm for selection of programmable valve pressure setting. Neurosurgery. 2004 Oct; 55(4):851-8; discussion 858-9.
Hu X, Nenov V. Multivariate AR modeling of electromyography for the classification of upper arm movements. Clin Neurophysiol. 2004 Jun; 115(6):1276-87.
Hu X, Nenov V. Robust measure for characterizing generalized synchronization. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2004 Feb; 69(2 Pt 2):026206.
Headshot of Xiao Hu
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