Barbara Drew, RN, PhD, FAAN



My program of research focuses on expanding information obtained from electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings to improve clinical decision-making and patient outcomes in hospital and pre-hospital settings. I helped develop a monitoring strategy, “reduced lead set” technology, a method to derive a multi-lead electrocardiogram from a reduced number of electrodes. I was invited to present my research in reduced lead set technology at the Einthoven Foundation’s Celebration of 100 years of the Electrocardiogram in the Netherlands in 2002. Einthoven won a Nobel Prize for inventing the ECG machine in 1902, and this celebration acknowledged scientists who had made important and lasting contributions to the field.
Results of studies from my research laboratory (ECG Monitoring Research Lab in the School of Nursing) have informed the development of ST-segment (ischemia) monitoring algorithms for cardiac monitors. We discovered causes of false ischemia monitoring alarms, such as changes in a patient’s body position, which can alter waveforms and mimic the electrocardiographic changes of myocardial ischemia. Our publications provided evidence for the importance of ischemia monitoring in patients presenting to the emergency room with chest pain or treated in hospital units for acute coronary syndromes. A series of studies from my laboratory have shown that transient ischemia following treatment for acute coronary syndromes is: (1) usually missed with routine “arrhythmia” monitoring leads, (2) associated with poor hospital outcomes and, (3) most often (80%) clinically silent (asymptomatic). In addition, we were the first to publish that automated ST segment ischemia monitoring provided prognostic information above and beyond the initial standard 12-lead ECG in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
Realizing that the under-utilization of ischemia monitoring by clinicians in emergency rooms and hospital units was due to a lack of clarity about how to perform it, I organized an international group of experts to develop a practice guideline. The resultant report was entitled, Multi-lead ST-segment monitoring in patients with acute coronary syndromes: A consensus statement for healthcare professionals, published in 1999. This guideline has influenced clinical practice internationally.
Recent studies have focused on ECG monitoring in emergency rooms and pre-hospital settings. I helped design computer software for an ambulance device capable of monitoring patients for ischemia using reduced lead set technology and automatically transmitting abnormal ECGs by cell phone to the destination hospital. Results from our study show that this pre-hospital monitoring strategy increases paramedic utilization of pre-hospital ECG, reduces time from 911call to first ECG, and reduces hospital time to treatment for acute coronary syndrome.
I have also worked recently on another goal of hospital ECG monitoring: QT interval monitoring. By monitoring QT intervals in patients who are started on potentially pro-arrhythmic drugs, it may be possible to prevent the complication of torsade de pointes, a cause of sudden cardiac death in hospital settings. I advised engineers to design an automated QT interval measurement strategy that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2008. After implementing the QT monitoring system in the 5 critical care units at Stanford Hospitals & Clinics, we found that a high proportion (24%) of patients had dangerous QT interval prolongation episodes and that they were 3 times more likely to have in-hospital death. I believe this upgrade to cardiac monitors will save nursing time by eliminating the need for manual measurements and provide more frequent, reliable, and accurate measurement of the QT interval and may prevent cardiac arrests in hospital settings.
In collaboration with a professor at Yale School of Nursing, we have been funded by NHLBI for a 5-yr, multi-center randomized clinical trial to implement the American Heart Association Practice Standards for ECG Monitoring in Hospital Settings and to determine whether it will improve nurse monitoring behaviors, quality of care, and patient outcomes. We developed interactive educational computer modules recommending the best practices for arrhythmia, ischemia, and QT interval monitoring for use in the study.
Currently, I am conducting a pilot study in post-heart-transplant patients to determine whether an increase in the QT interval measured with a home ECG device and transmitted to my research laboratory is an early biomarker for acute cardiac allograft rejection. If this noninvasive biomarker proves sensitive for the detection of acute rejection, then I will submit a proposal for a randomized clinical trial comparing it with routine invasive endomyocardial biopsies.


Honors and Awards

NINR Director’s Lecture, National Institute for Nursing Research, NIH, 2014
Distinguished Scientist Award, American Heart Association, 2014
David Mortara Distinguished Professor, UCSF, 2013
Kenichi Harumi Plenary Address, International Society for Computerized Electrocardiology, 2010
Lillian & Dudley Aldous Professor in Nursing Science (Endowed Chair), UCSF, 2010
Distinguished Teaching Award, UCSF Division of the Academic Senate, 2009
Fulbright Senior Scientist Award, Institute of Nursing Science, University of Basel, Switzerland, 2006
26thHelen Nahm Research Lecture Award, UCSF School of Nursing, 2006
Outstanding Faculty Mentorship Award, UCSF Graduate Students’ Association, 2003
Distinguished Research Lecturer Award, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, 2002
Katherine A. Lembright Award Lecture for achievement in cardiovascular nursing research, Council on, American Heart Association, 2001


Fidler R, Bond R, Finlay D, Guldenring D, Gallagher A, Pelter M, Drew B, Hu X. Human factors approach to evaluate the user interface of physiologic monitoring. J Electrocardiol. 2015 Nov-Dec; 48(6):982-7.
Sandau KE, Sendelbach S, Fletcher L, Frederickson J, Drew BJ, Funk M. Computer-assisted interventions to improve QTc documentation in patients receiving QT-prolonging drugs. Am J Crit Care. 2015 Mar; 24(2):e6-e15.
Drew BJ, Dracup K, Criley JM, Fung G, Marcus F, Mortara D, Laks M, Scheinman M. Reply: nurse practitioners (and other physician extenders) are not an appropriate replacement for expert physician electrocardiogram readers in routine clinical practice. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Jan 6; 65(1):107-8.
Bond RR, Kligfield PD, Zhu T, Finlay DD, Drew B, Guldenring D, Breen C, Clifford GD, Wagner GS. Novel approach to documenting expert ECG interpretation using eye tracking technology: a historical and biographical representation of the late Dr Rory Childers in action. J Electrocardiol. 2015 Jan-Feb; 48(1):43-4.
Drew BJ, Harris P, Zègre-Hemsey JK, Mammone T, Schindler D, Salas-Boni R, Bai Y, Tinoco A, Ding Q, Hu X. Insights into the problem of alarm fatigue with physiologic monitor devices: a comprehensive observational study of consecutive intensive care unit patients. PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e110274.
Bai Y, Do DH, Harris PR, Schindler D, Boyle NG, Drew BJ, Hu X. Integrating monitor alarms with laboratory test results to enhance patient deterioration prediction. J Biomed Inform. 2015 Feb; 53:81-92.
Drew BJ, Dracup K, Childers R, Criley JM, Fung G, Marcus F, Mortara D, Laks M, Scheinman M. Finding ECG readers in clinical practice: is it time to change the paradigm? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Aug 5; 64(5):528.
Harris PR, Stein PK, Fung GL, Drew BJ. Heart rate variability measured early in patients with evolving acute coronary syndrome and 1-year outcomes of rehospitalization and mortality. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2014; 10:451-64.
Salas-Boni R, Bai Y, Harris PR, Drew BJ, Hu X. False ventricular tachycardia alarm suppression in the ICU based on the discrete wavelet transform in the ECG signal. J Electrocardiol. 2014 Nov-Dec; 47(6):775-80.
Harris PR, Sommargren CE, Stein PK, Fung GL, Drew BJ. Heart rate variability measurement and clinical depression in acute coronary syndrome patients: narrative review of recent literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014; 10:1335-47.
Bond RR, Zhu T, Finlay DD, Drew B, Kligfield PD, Guldenring D, Breen C, Gallagher AG, Daly MJ, Clifford GD. Assessing computerized eye tracking technology for gaining insight into expert interpretation of the 12-lead electrocardiogram: an objective quantitative approach. J Electrocardiol. 2014 Nov-Dec; 47(6):895-906.
Pickham D, Flowers E, Drew BJ. Hyperglycemia is associated with corrected QT prolongation and mortality in acutely ill patients. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2014 May-Jun; 29(3):264-70.
Hasanien AA, Drew BJ, Howie-Esquivel J. Prevalence and prognostic significance of long QT interval in patients with acute coronary syndrome: review of the literature. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2014 May-Jun; 29(3):271-9.
Pickham D, Hickey K, Doering L, Chen B, Castillo C, Drew BJ. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in the first year after heart transplantation. J Electrocardiol. 2014 Mar-Apr; 47(2):135-9.
Winkler C, Funk M, Schindler DM, Hemsey JZ, Lampert R, Drew BJ. Arrhythmias in patients with acute coronary syndrome in the first 24 hours of hospitalization. Heart Lung. 2013 Nov-Dec; 42(6):422-7.
Harris PR, Stein PK, Fung GL, Drew BJ. Prognostic value of heart rate turbulence for risk assessment in patients with unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2013; 9:465-73.
Hasanien AA, Drew BJ, Howie-Esquivel J, Fung G, Harris P. Prevalence and prognostic significance of long QT interval among patients with chest pain: selecting an optimum QT rate correction formula. J Electrocardiol. 2013 Jul-Aug; 46(4):336-42.
Zègre Hemsey JK, Dracup K, Fleischmann KE, Sommargren CE, Paul SM, Drew BJ. Prehospital electrocardiographic manifestations of acute myocardial ischemia independently predict adverse hospital outcomes. J Emerg Med. 2013 May; 44(5):955-61.
Slakey DP, Simms E, Drew B, Yazdi F, Roberts B. Complications of liver resection: laparoscopic versus open procedures. JSLS. 2013 Jan-Mar; 17(1):46-55.
Pickham D, Mortara D, Drew BJ. Time dependent history improves QT interval estimation in atrial fibrillation. J Electrocardiol. 2012 Nov-Dec; 45(6):556-60.
Turakhia MP, Estes NA, Drew BJ, Granger CB, Wang PJ, Knight BP, Page RL. Latency of ECG displays of hospital telemetry systems: a science advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2012 Sep 25; 126(13):1665-9.
Khush KK, Menza R, Nguyen J, Goldstein BA, Zaroff JG, Drew BJ. Electrocardiographic characteristics of potential organ donors and associations with cardiac allograft use. Circ Heart Fail. 2012 Jul 1; 5(4):475-83.
Wilson JR, Singh A, Craven C, Verrier MC, Drew B, Ahn H, Ford M, Fehlings MG. Early versus late surgery for traumatic spinal cord injury: the results of a prospective Canadian cohort study. Spinal Cord. 2012 Nov; 50(11):840-3.
Pickham D, Shinn JA, Chan GK, Funk M, Drew BJ. Quasi-experimental study to improve nurses' QT-interval monitoring: results of QTIP study. Am J Crit Care. 2012 May; 21(3):195-200; quiz 201.
Siebens K, Miljoen H, De Geest S, Drew B, Vrints C. Development and implementation of a critical pathway for patients with chest pain through action research. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2012 Dec; 11(4):466-71.
Carter EV, Hickey KT, Pickham DM, Doering LV, Chen B, Harris PR, Drew BJ. Feasibility and compliance with daily home electrocardiogram monitoring of the QT interval in heart transplant recipients. Heart Lung. 2012 Jul-Aug; 41(4):368-73.
Doering LV, Hickey K, Pickham D, Chen B, Drew BJ. Remote noninvasive allograft rejection monitoring for heart transplant recipients: study protocol for the novel evaluation with home electrocardiogram and remote transmission (NEW HEART) study. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2012; 12:14.
Pickham D, Helfenbein E, Shinn JA, Chan G, Funk M, Weinacker A, Liu JN, Drew BJ. High prevalence of corrected QT interval prolongation in acutely ill patients is associated with mortality: results of the QT in Practice (QTIP) Study. Crit Care Med. 2012 Feb; 40(2):394-9.
Zègre Hemsey JK, Drew BJ. Prehospital electrocardiography: a review of the literature. J Emerg Nurs. 2012 Jan; 38(1):9-14.
Zègre Hemsey JK, Dracup K, Fleischmann K, Sommargren CE, Drew BJ. Prehospital 12-lead ST-segment monitoring improves the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. J Electrocardiol. 2012 May-Jun; 45(3):266-71.
Drew BJ, Sommargren CE, Schindler DM, Benedict K, Zegre-Hemsey J, Glancy JP. A simple strategy improves prehospital electrocardiogram utilization and hospital treatment for patients with acute coronary syndrome (from the ST SMART Study). Am J Cardiol. 2011 Feb 1; 107(3):347-52.
Drew B. Standardization of electrode placement for continuous patient monitoring: introduction of an assessment tool to compare proposed electrocardiogram lead configurations. J Electrocardiol. 2011 Mar-Apr; 44(2):115-8.
Fleischmann KE, Zègre-Hemsey J, Drew BJ. The new universal definition of myocardial infarction criteria improve electrocardiographic diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. J Electrocardiol. 2011 Jan-Feb; 44(1):69-73.
Pickham D, Helfenbein E, Shinn JA, Chan G, Funk M, Drew BJ. How many patients need QT interval monitoring in critical care units? Preliminary report of the QT in Practice study. J Electrocardiol. 2010 Nov-Dec; 43(6):572-6.
Funk M, Winkler CG, May JL, Stephens K, Fennie KP, Rose LL, Turkman YE, Drew BJ. Unnecessary arrhythmia monitoring and underutilization of ischemia and QT interval monitoring in current clinical practice: baseline results of the Practical Use of the Latest Standards for Electrocardiography trial. J Electrocardiol. 2010 Nov-Dec; 43(6):542-7.
Drew BJ, Ackerman MJ, Funk M, Gibler WB, Kligfield P, Menon V, Philippides GJ, Roden DM, Zareba W. Prevention of torsade de pointes in hospital settings: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Mar 2; 55(9):934-47.
Siebens K, Miljoen H, Fieuws S, Drew B, De Geest S, Vrints C. Implementation of the guidelines for the management of patients with chest pain through a critical pathway approach improves length of stay and patient satisfaction but not anxiety. Crit Pathw Cardiol. 2010 Mar; 9(1):30-4.
Drew BJ, Ackerman MJ, Funk M, Gibler WB, Kligfield P, Menon V, Philippides GJ, Roden DM, Zareba W. Prevention of torsade de pointes in hospital settings: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation. 2010 Mar 2; 121(8):1047-60.
Zègre-Hemsey J, Sommargren CE, Drew BJ. Initial ECG acquisition within 10 minutes of arrival at the emergency department in persons with chest pain: time and gender differences. J Emerg Nurs. 2011 Jan; 37(1):109-12.
Wood KA, Stewart AL, Drew BJ, Scheinman MM, Frolicher ES. Development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Patient Perspective of Arrhythmia Questionnaire. Res Nurs Health. 2009 Oct; 32(5):504-16.
Wood KA, Stewart AL, Drew BJ, Scheinman MM, Froëlicher ES. Patient perception of symptoms and quality of life following ablation in patients with supraventricular tachycardia. Heart Lung. 2010 Jan-Feb; 39(1):12-20.
Frendl DM, Palmeri ST, Clapp JR, Hampton D, Sejersten M, Young D, Drew B, Farrell R, Innes J, Russell J, Rowlandson GI, Purim-Shem-Tov Y, Underhill BK, Zhou S, Wagner GS. Overcoming barriers to developing seamless ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction care systems in the United States: recommendations from a comprehensive Prehospital 12-lead Electrocardiogram Working Group. J Electrocardiol. 2009 Sep-Oct; 42(5):426-31.
Lee E, Drew BJ, Selvester RH, Michaels AD. Sequence of electrocardiographic and acoustic cardiographic changes and angina during coronary occlusion and reperfusion in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2009 Apr; 14(2):137-46.
Lee E, Drew BJ, Selvester RH, Michaels AD. Diastolic heart sounds as an adjunctive diagnostic tool with ST criteria for acute myocardial ischemia. Acute Card Care. 2009; 11(4):229-35.
Lee E, Michaels AD, Selvester RH, Drew BJ. Frequency of diastolic third and fourth heart sounds with myocardial ischemia induced during percutaneous coronary intervention. J Electrocardiol. 2009 Jan-Feb; 42(1):39-45.
Drew BJ, Finlay DD. Standardization of reduced and optimal lead sets for continuous electrocardiogram monitoring: where do we stand? J Electrocardiol. 2008 Nov-Dec; 41(6):458-65.
Ting HH, Krumholz HM, Bradley EH, Cone DC, Curtis JP, Drew BJ, Field JM, French WJ, Gibler WB, Goff DC, Jacobs AK, Nallamothu BK, O'Connor RE, Schuur JD. Implementation and integration of prehospital ECGs into systems of care for acute coronary syndrome: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research, Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, and Council on Clinical Cardiology. Circulation. 2008 Sep 2; 118(10):1066-79.
Pickham D, Drew BJ. QT/QTc interval monitoring in the emergency department. J Emerg Nurs. 2008 Oct; 34(5):428-34.
Drew B, Kligfield P. Standardizing electrocardiographic leads: introduction to a symposium. J Electrocardiol. 2008 May-Jun; 41(3):187-9.
Drew BJ. Pseudo myocardial injury patterns because of nonstandard electrocardiogram electrode placement. J Electrocardiol. 2008 May-Jun; 41(3):202-4.
McCord J, Jneid H, Hollander JE, de Lemos JA, Cercek B, Hsue P, Gibler WB, Ohman EM, Drew B, Philippides G, Newby LK. Management of cocaine-associated chest pain and myocardial infarction: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Acute Cardiac Care Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology. Circulation. 2008 Apr 8; 117(14):1897-907.
Drew BJ, Schindler DM, Zegre JK, Fleischmann KE, Lux RL. Estimated body surface potential maps in emergency department patients with unrecognized transient myocardial ischemia. J Electrocardiol. 2007 Nov-Dec; 40(6 Suppl):S15-20.
Schindler DM, Lux RL, Shusterman V, Drew BJ. Karhunen-Loève representation distinguishes ST-T wave morphology differences in emergency department chest pain patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction versus nonacute coronary syndrome. J Electrocardiol. 2007 Nov-Dec; 40(6 Suppl):S145-9.
Shusterman V, Goldberg A, Schindler DM, Fleischmann KE, Lux RL, Drew BJ. Dynamic tracking of ischemia in the surface electrocardiogram. J Electrocardiol. 2007 Nov-Dec; 40(6 Suppl):S179-86.
Drew BJ. Pulling it all together: case studies on ECG monitoring. AACN Adv Crit Care. 2007 Jul-Sep; 18(3):305-17.
Sommargren CE, Drew BJ. Preventing torsades de pointes by careful cardiac monitoring in hospital settings. AACN Adv Crit Care. 2007 Jul-Sep; 18(3):285-93.
Miller JN, Drew BJ. Atrial electrograms after cardiac surgery: survey of clinical practice. Am J Crit Care. 2007 Jul; 16(4):350-6; quiz 357; discussion 358-9.
Solis P, Amsterdam EA, Bufalino V, Drew BJ, Jacobs AK. Development of systems of care for ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients: policy recommendations. Circulation. 2007 Jul 10; 116(2):e73-6.
Drew BJ. Critical care nurses in industry: deserters or leaders? Am J Crit Care. 2007 May; 16(3):204-5.
Siebens K, Moons P, De Geest S, Miljoen H, Drew BJ, Vrints C. The role of nurses in a chest pain unit. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2007 Dec; 6(4):265-72.
Drew BJ, Sommargren CE, Schindler DM, Zegre J, Benedict K, Krucoff MW. Novel electrocardiogram configurations and transmission procedures in the prehospital setting: effect on ischemia and arrhythmia determination. J Electrocardiol. 2006 Oct; 39(4 Suppl):S157-60.
Drew BJ. Pitfalls and artifacts in electrocardiography. Cardiol Clin. 2006 Aug; 24(3):309-15, vii.
Banki N, Kopelnik A, Tung P, Lawton MT, Gress D, Drew B, Dae M, Foster E, Parmley W, Zaroff J. Prospective analysis of prevalence, distribution, and rate of recovery of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 2006 Jul; 105(1):15-20.
Drew BJ, Funk M. Practice standards for ECG monitoring in hospital settings: executive summary and guide for implementation. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2006 Jun; 18(2):157-68, ix.
Harris IS, Lee E, Yeghiazarians Y, Drew BJ, Michaels AD. Phonocardiographic timing of third and fourth heart sounds during acute myocardial infarction. J Electrocardiol. 2006 Jul; 39(3):305-9.
Kothavale A, Banki NM, Kopelnik A, Yarlagadda S, Lawton MT, Ko N, Smith WS, Drew B, Foster E, Zaroff JG. Predictors of left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2006; 4(3):199-205.
Banki NM, Kopelnik A, Dae MW, Miss J, Tung P, Lawton MT, Drew BJ, Foster E, Smith W, Parmley WW, Zaroff JG. Acute neurocardiogenic injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Circulation. 2005 Nov 22; 112(21):3314-9.
Drew BJ, Pelter MM, Lee E, Zegre J, Schindler D, Fleischmann KE. Designing prehospital ECG systems for acute coronary syndromes. Lessons learned from clinical trials involving 12-lead ST-segment monitoring. J Electrocardiol. 2005 Oct; 38(4 Suppl):180-5.
Gibler WB, Cannon CP, Blomkalns AL, Char DM, Drew BJ, Hollander JE, Jaffe AS, Jesse RL, Newby LK, Ohman EM, Peterson ED, Pollack CV. Practical implementation of the Guidelines for Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Aug; 46(2):185-97.
Tung PP, Olmsted E, Kopelnik A, Banki NM, Drew BJ, Ko N, Lawton MT, Smith W, Foster E, Young WL, Zaroff JG. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels are associated with early cardiac dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2005 Jul; 36(7):1567-9.
Gibler WB, Cannon CP, Blomkalns AL, Char DM, Drew BJ, Hollander JE, Jaffe AS, Jesse RL, Newby LK, Ohman EM, Peterson ED, Pollack CV. Practical implementation of the guidelines for unstable angina/non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the emergency department: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology (Subcommittee on Acute Cardiac Care), Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, and Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group, in Collaboration With the Society of Chest Pain Centers. Circulation. 2005 May 24; 111(20):2699-710.
Drew BJ, Califf RM, Funk M, Kaufman ES, Krucoff MW, Laks MM, Macfarlane PW, Sommargren C, Swiryn S, Van Hare GF. AHA scientific statement: practice standards for electrocardiographic monitoring in hospital settings: an American Heart Association Scientific Statement from the Councils on Cardiovascular Nursing, Clinical Cardiology, and Cardiovascular Disease in the Young: endorsed by the International Society of Computerized electrocardiology and the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2005 Mar-Apr; 20(2):76-106.
Khush K, Kopelnik A, Tung P, Banki N, Dae M, Lawton M, Smith W, Drew B, Foster E, Zaroff J. Age and aneurysm position predict patterns of left ventricular dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2005 Feb; 18(2):168-74.
Kopelnik A, Fisher L, Miss JC, Banki N, Tung P, Lawton MT, Ko N, Smith WS, Drew B, Foster E, Zaroff J. Prevalence and implications of diastolic dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2005; 3(2):132-8.
Drew BJ, Califf RM, Funk M, Kaufman ES, Krucoff MW, Laks MM, Macfarlane PW, Sommargren C, Swiryn S, Van Hare GF. Practice standards for electrocardiographic monitoring in hospital settings: an American Heart Association scientific statement from the Councils on Cardiovascular Nursing, Clinical Cardiology, and Cardiovascular Disease in the Young: endorsed by the International Society of Computerized Electrocardiology and the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. Circulation. 2004 Oct 26; 110(17):2721-46.
Tung P, Kopelnik A, Banki N, Ong K, Ko N, Lawton MT, Gress D, Drew B, Foster E, Parmley W, Zaroff J. Predictors of neurocardiogenic injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2004 Feb; 35(2):548-51.
Drew BJ, Dempsey ED, Joo TH, Sommargren CE, Glancy JP, Benedict K, Krucoff MW. Pre-hospital synthesized 12-lead ECG ischemia monitoring with trans-telephonic transmission in acute coronary syndromes: pilot study results of the ST SMART trial. J Electrocardiol. 2004; 37 Suppl:214-21.
Lux R, Bilbao M, Pelter M, Fleischmann K, Zegre J, Schindler D, Drew B. Optimal leads, estimation, and continuous monitoring improve detection of acute MI and transient ischemia. J Electrocardiol. 2004; 37 Suppl:240-3.
Booker KJ, Holm K, Drew BJ, Lanuza DM, Hicks FD, Carrigan T, Wright M, Moran J. Frequency and outcomes of transient myocardial ischemia in critically ill adults admitted for noncardiac conditions. Am J Crit Care. 2003 Nov; 12(6):508-16; discussion 517.
Birnbaum Y, Drew BJ. The electrocardiogram in ST elevation acute myocardial infarction: correlation with coronary anatomy and prognosis. Postgrad Med J. 2003 Sep; 79(935):490-504.
Pelter MM, Adams MG, Drew BJ. Transient myocardial ischemia is an independent predictor of adverse in-hospital outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated in the telemetry unit. Heart Lung. 2003 Mar-Apr; 32(2):71-8.
Adams-Hamoda MG, Caldwell MA, Stotts NA, Drew BJ. Factors to consider when analyzing 12-lead electrocardiograms for evidence of acute myocardial ischemia. Am J Crit Care. 2003 Jan; 12(1):9-16; quiz 17-8.
Pelter MM, Adams MG, Drew BJ. Association of transient myocardial ischemia with adverse in-hospital outcomes for angina patients treated in a telemetry unit or a coronary care unit. Am J Crit Care. 2002 Jul; 11(4):318-25.
Drew BJ. Celebrating the 100th birthday of the electrocardiogram: lessons learned from research in cardiac monitoring. Am J Crit Care. 2002 Jul; 11(4):378-86; quiz 387-8.
Drew BJ, Pelter MM, Adams MG. Frequency, characteristics, and clinical significance of transient ST segment elevation in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Eur Heart J. 2002 Jun; 23(12):941-7.
Drew BJ, Pelter MM, Brodnick DE, Yadav AV, Dempel D, Adams MG. Comparison of a new reduced lead set ECG with the standard ECG for diagnosing cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia. J Electrocardiol. 2002; 35 Suppl:13-21.
Adams MG, Drew BJ. Efficacy of 2 strategies to detect body position ST-segment changes during continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic monitoring. J Electrocardiol. 2002; 35 Suppl:193-200.
Sommargren CE, Zaroff JG, Banki N, Drew BJ. Electrocardiographic repolarization abnormalities in subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Electrocardiol. 2002; 35 Suppl:257-62.
Booker KJ, Drew BJ, Lux RL, Johanson P, Krucoff MW, Hampton D, Hubelbank M, Feild DQ, Stadler RW, Mortara DM. The first ISCE Board of "Trustees" overview panel session: ischemia monitoring, state of the art. International Society of Computerized Electrocardiology. J Electrocardiol. 2002; 35 Suppl:207-30.
Drew BJ, Adams MG. Clinical consequences of ST-segment changes caused by body position mimicking transient myocardial ischemia: hazards of ST-segment monitoring? J Electrocardiol. 2001 Jul; 34(3):261-4.
Puntillo KA, Benner P, Drought T, Drew B, Stotts N, Stannard D, Rushton C, Scanlon C, White C. End-of-life issues in intensive care units: a national random survey of nurses' knowledge and beliefs. Am J Crit Care. 2001 Jul; 10(4):216-29.
Wung SF, Drew BJ. New electrocardiographic criteria for posterior wall acute myocardial ischemia validated by a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty model of acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2001 Apr 15; 87(8):970-4; A4.
Booker KJ, Holm K, Drew BJ, Ide B. Lead wire reversal during 12-lead EKG monitoring. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2001; 16(1):35-6.
Ide B, Drew B. How a rhythm strip aids in clinical diagnosis. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2001; 16(2):88.
Drew B, Peters C, Rimell F. Upper airway complications in children after bone marrow transplantation. Laryngoscope. 2000 Sep; 110(9):1446-51.
Caldwell MA, Froelicher ES, Drew BJ. Prehospital delay time in acute myocardial infarction: an exploratory study on relation to hospital outcomes and cost. Am Heart J. 2000 May; 139(5):788-96.
Crater SW, Taylor CA, Maas AC, Loeffler AK, Pope JE, Drew BJ, Krucoff MW. Real-time application of continuous 12-lead ST-segment monitoring: 3 case studies. Crit Care Nurse. 2000 Apr; 20(2):93-9.
Ide B, Drew BJ. How is atrial tachycardia differentiated from atrial flutter? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2000; 15(4):151, 153.
Wung SF, Lux RL, Drew BJ. Thoracic location of the lead with maximal ST-segment deviation during posterior and right ventricular ischemia: comparison of 18-lead ECG with 192 estimated body surface leads. J Electrocardiol. 2000; 33 Suppl:167-74.
Ide B, Drew BJ. Has this patient lost his lead? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2000; 15(3):113.
Matsumoto CG, Drew BJ, Ide B. Why should nurses closely monitor the ECG during insertion or exchange of a central venous catheter? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2000; 15(1):29, 31.
Daly BJ, Hooks J, Youngner SJ, Drew B, Prince-Paul M. Thoughts of hastening death among hospice patients. J Clin Ethics. 2000; 11(1):56-65.
Chan GK, Drew BJ, Ide B. What life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism results in prominent U waves on the EKG? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2000; 15(2):69-70.
Drew BJ, Krucoff MW. Multilead ST-segment monitoring in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a consensus statement for healthcare professionals. ST- Segment Monitoring Practice Guideline International Working Group. Am J Crit Care. 1999 Nov; 8(6):372-86; quiz 387-8.
Lau KY, Wung SF, Adams MG, Zellner C, Drew BJ. Frequency of ischemia during intracoronary ultrasound in women with and without coronary artery disease. Crit Care Nurse. 1999 Oct; 19(5):48-56.
Adams MG, Pelter MM, Wung SF, Taylor CA, Drew BJ. Frequency of silent myocardial ischemia with 12-lead ST segment monitoring in the coronary care unit: are there sex-related differences? Heart Lung. 1999 Mar-Apr; 28(2):81-6.
Wung SF, Drew B. Comparison of 18-lead ECG and selected body surface potential mapping leads in determining maximally deviated ST lead and efficacy in detecting acute myocardial ischemia during coronary occlusion. J Electrocardiol. 1999; 32 Suppl:30-7.
Fukoka Y, Ide B, Drew B. What is the most serious complication for patients with anorexia nervosa? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1999; 14(2):75-6.
Kramer MJ, Ide B, Drew BJ. What is the most common arrhythmia following cardiac revascularization? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1999; 14(4):159, 161.
Banks AD, Drew BJ, Ide B. Does recording of a patient's ST segment "fingerprint" during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) help to exclude coronary artery reocclusion as the cause of transient ischemia following the procedure? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1999; 14(3):115-6.
Drew BJ, Pelter MM, Wung SF, Adams MG, Taylor C, Evans GT, Foster E. Accuracy of the EASI 12-lead electrocardiogram compared to the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram for diagnosing multiple cardiac abnormalities. J Electrocardiol. 1999; 32 Suppl:38-47.
Drew BJ, Ide B. Could inaccurate lead placement cause misdiagnosis of the culprit artery in patients with acute myocardial infarction? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1999; 14(1):33-4.
Pelter MM, Adams MG, Wung SF, Paul SM, Drew BJ. Peak time of occurrence of myocardial ischemia in the coronary care unit. Am J Crit Care. 1998 Nov; 7(6):411-7.
Drew BJ, Pelter MM, Adams MG, Wung SF, Chou TM, Wolfe CL. 12-lead ST-segment monitoring vs single-lead maximum ST-segment monitoring for detecting ongoing ischemia in patients with unstable coronary syndromes. Am J Crit Care. 1998 Sep; 7(5):355-63.
Drew BJ, Wung SF, Adams MG, Pelter MM. Bedside diagnosis of myocardial ischemia with ST-segment monitoring technology: measurement issues for real-time clinical decision making and trial designs. J Electrocardiol. 1998; 30 Suppl:157-65.
Ide B, Drew BJ. The many rhythms of digitalis toxicity. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1998; 13(1):41.
Drew BJ, Ide B. Use of the EKG in risk stratification. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1998; 13(2):32-3.
Ide B, Drew BJ. Cardiac arrhythmias with aging. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1998; 13(4):31.
Drew BJ, Ide B. Differential diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardia. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1998; 13(3):46-7.
Caldwell MA, Pelter M, Drew BJ. Estimating ischemic burden: comparison of two formulas. Am J Crit Care. 1997 Nov; 6(6):463-6.
Adams MG, Drew BJ. Body position effects on the ECG: implication for ischemia monitoring. J Electrocardiol. 1997 Oct; 30(4):285-91.
Drew BJ, Adams MG, McEldowney DK, Lau KY, Wung SF, Wolfe CL, Ports TA, Chou TM. Frequency, duration, magnitude, and consequences of myocardial ischemia during intracoronary ultrasonography. Am Heart J. 1997 Sep; 134(3):474-8.
Daly BJ, Berry D, Fitzpatrick JJ, Drew B, Montgomery K. Assisted suicide: implications for nurses and nursing. Nurs Outlook. 1997 Sep-Oct; 45(5):209-14.
Hewer I, Drew B, Karp K, Stotts N. The utilization of automated ST segment analysis in the determination of myocardial ischemia. AANA J. 1997 Aug; 65(4):351-6.
Wood KA, Eisenberg SJ, Kalman JM, Drew BJ, Saxon LA, Lee RJ, Lesh MD, Scheinman MM. Risk of thromboembolism in chronic atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Apr 15; 79(8):1043-7.
Pelter MM, Adams MG, Drew BJ. Computer versus manual measurement of ST-segment deviation. J Electrocardiol. 1997 Apr; 30(2):151-6.
Drew BJ, Adams MG, Pelter MM, Wung SF, Caldwell MA. Comparison of standard and derived 12-lead electrocardiograms for diagnosis of coronary angioplasty-induced myocardial ischemia. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Mar 1; 79(5):639-44.
Wood KA, Drew BJ, Scheinman MM. Frequency of disabling symptoms in supraventricular tachycardia. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Jan 15; 79(2):145-9.
Drew BJ, Ide B. Is it safe to inject adenosine through a central line? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1997; 12(1):47-8.
Ide B, Drew BJ. What's wrong with this atrial fibrillation? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1997; 12(2):40.
Drew BJ, Ide B. An unexpected ST segment deviation during an exercise treadmill test. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1997; 12(3):40-1.
Ide B, Drew BJ. Hyperkalemia: a dangerous diagnosis for patients with congestive heart failure. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1997; 12(4):36-7.
Caldwell MA, Pelter MM, Drew BJ. Chest pain is an unreliable measure of ischemia in men and women during PTCA. Heart Lung. 1996 Nov-Dec; 25(6):423-9.
Drew BJ, Adams MG, Pelter MM, Wung SF. ST segment monitoring with a derived 12-lead electrocardiogram is superior to routine cardiac care unit monitoring. Am J Crit Care. 1996 May; 5(3):198-206.
Drew BJ, Ide B. Diagnosing ischemia from the bedside monitor. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1996; 11(1):45-6.
Drew BJ, Ide B. "Relative" sinus bradycardia. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1996; 11(3):47-8.
Pelter MM, Adams MG, Drew BJ. ST segment deviation during myocardial ischemia: are there gender differences? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1996; 11(3):4-9.
Ide B, Drew BJ. Does AV dissociation always mean heart block? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1996; 11(4):47-8.
Pelter MM, Adams MG, Drew BJ. Computer versus manual measurement of ST-segment deviation. J Electrocardiol. 1996; 29 Suppl:78-82.
Drew BJ, Scheinman MM. ECG criteria to distinguish between aberrantly conducted supraventricular tachycardia and ventricular tachycardia: practical aspects for the immediate care setting. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1995 Dec; 18(12 Pt 1):2194-208.
Drew BJ, Ide B. Monitoring paced rhythms. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1995; 10(4):44-5.
Drew BJ, Ide B. Regular atrial fibrillation spells trouble. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1995; 10(3):44-5.
Drew BJ, Ide B. Right ventricular infarction. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1995; 10(2):45-6.
Drew BJ, Ide B, Witherell CL, Tong EM. Pediatric tachycardias. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1995; 10(1):46, 48.
Drew BJ, Adams MG, Wung SF, Dower GE. Value of a derived 12-lead ECG for detecting transient myocardial ischemia. J Electrocardiol. 1995; 28 Suppl:211.
Carson KJ, Drew BJ. Electrocardiographic changes in critically ill adults during intrahospital transport. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1994; 9(4):4-12.
Drew BJ, Ide B. Causes of sinus pauses. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1994; 9(1):48.
Drew BJ, Ide B. T wave alternans. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1994; 9(4):45.
Drew BJ, Ide B. Aberration versus ectopy. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1994; 9(3):46.
Drew BJ, Koops RR, Adams MG, Dower GE. Derived 12-lead ECG. Comparison with the standard ECG during myocardial ischemia and its potential application for continuous ST-segment monitoring. J Electrocardiol. 1994; 27 Suppl:249-55.
McIntosh-Yellin NL, Drew BJ, Scheinman MM. Safety and efficacy of central intravenous bolus administration of adenosine for termination of supraventricular tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993 Sep; 22(3):741-5.
Drew BJ, Tisdale LA. ST segment monitoring for coronary artery reocclusion following thrombolytic therapy and coronary angioplasty: identification of optimal bedside monitoring leads. Am J Crit Care. 1993 Jul; 2(4):280-92.
Tisdale LA, Drew BJ. ST segment monitoring for myocardial ischemia. AACN Clin Issues Crit Care Nurs. 1993 Feb; 4(1):34-43.
Drew BJ. Bedside electrocardiogram monitoring. AACN Clin Issues Crit Care Nurs. 1993 Feb; 4(1):25-33.
Drew BJ, Ide B. How can you distinguish supraventricular tachycardia with a bundle branch block from ventricular tachycardia? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1993; 8(1):48.
Drew BJ. Using cardiac leads the right way. Nursing. 1992 May; 22(5):50-4.
Drew BJ, Scheinman MM, Evans GT. Comparison of a vectorcardiographically derived 12-lead electrocardiogram with the conventional electrocardiogram during wide QRS complex tachycardia, and its potential application for continuous bedside monitoring. Am J Cardiol. 1992 Mar 1; 69(6):612-8.
Drew BJ. Bedside electrocardiographic monitoring: state of the art for the 1990s. Heart Lung. 1991 Nov; 20(6):610-23.
Drew BJ, Ide B, Sparacino PS. Accuracy of bedside electrocardiographic monitoring: a report on current practices of critical care nurses. Heart Lung. 1991 Nov; 20(6):597-607.
Drew BJ, Scheinman MM. Value of electrocardiographic leads MCL1, MCL6 and other selected leads in the diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991 Oct; 18(4):1025-33.
Drew BJ, Scheinman MM, Dracup K. MCL1 and MCL6 compared to V1 and V6 in distinguishing aberrant supraventricular from ventricular ectopic beats. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1991 Sep; 14(9):1375-83.
Drew BJ. Bedside diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardia. Crit Care Nurs Q. 1991 Aug; 14(2):19-29.
Arteaga WJ, Drew BJ. Device therapy for ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation: the implantable cardioverter defibrillator and antitachycardia pacing. Crit Care Nurs Q. 1991 Aug; 14(2):60-71.
Drew BJ. Cardiac rhythm responses. 2. Review of 22 years of nursing research. Heart Lung. 1989 Mar; 18(2):184-91.
Drew BJ. Cardiac rhythm responses. 1. An important phenomenon for nursing practice, science, and research. Heart Lung. 1989 Jan; 18(1):8-16.
Drew BJ. Differentiation of wide QRS complex tachycardias: implications for critical care nursing. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1987 Oct-Dec; 2(4):130-8.
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