Linda Franck, RN, PhD, FAAN



My program of research focuses on health care for acutely and chronically ill infants and children, in primary, secondary and tertiary care settings, with a particular emphasis on pain assessment and management. My most recent research focuses on innovative strategies to improve family-centered care and enhance the partnership between parents and health care providers to ensure children receive optimal health care before, during and after hospitalization.


Honors and Awards

Jack and Elaine Koehn Endowed Chair in Pediatric Nursing , School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, 2014


Patterns of Sedation Weaning in Critically Ill Children Recovering From Acute Respiratory Failure. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Jan; 17(1):19-29.
Neonatal Intensive Care Nurses' Perceptions of Parental Participation in Infant Pain Management: A Comparative Focus Group Study. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2015 Oct-Dec; 29(4):363-74.
A Debate on the Proposition that Self-report is the Gold Standard in Assessment of Pediatric Pain Intensity. Clin J Pain. 2015 Aug; 31(8):707-12.
Publicly available online educational videos regarding pediatric needle pain: a scoping review. Clin J Pain. 2015 Jun; 31(6):591-8.
The Child and Family Hospital Experience: Is It Influenced by Family Accommodation? Med Care Res Rev. 2015 Aug; 72(4):419-37.
Usability and knowledge testing of educational tools about infant vaccination pain management directed to postnatal nurses. BMC Med Educ. 2015; 15(1):45.
Protocolized sedation vs usual care in pediatric patients mechanically ventilated for acute respiratory failure: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015 Jan 27; 313(4):379-89.
Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Parent Education Discharge Instruction (PEDI) Program: A Pilot Study. World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2015 Jan; 6(1):18-25.
Parent participation in a childhood immunization pain reduction method. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2015 Mar; 54(3):228-35.
Predictors of parent post-traumatic stress symptoms after child hospitalization on general pediatric wards: A prospective cohort study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2015 Jan; 52(1):10-21.
Parents' perspectives on safety in neonatal intensive care: a mixed-methods study. BMJ Qual Saf. 2014 Nov; 23(11):902-9.
The relationship between frequency of obstetric ultrasound scans and birthplace preference - A case control study. Midwifery. 2015 Jan; 31(1):31-6.
Parents' attitudes toward the use of complementary therapy by their children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy. J Altern Complement Med. 2014 Feb; 20(2):130-5.
Accommodating families during a child's hospital stay: implications for family experience and perceptions of outcomes. Fam Syst Health. 2013 Sep; 31(3):294-306.
Sleep-wake cycling in a neonate admitted to the NICU: a video-EEG case study during hypothermia treatment. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2013 Jul-Sep; 27(3):263-73.
Where do parents sleep best when children are hospitalized? A pilot comparison study. Behav Sleep Med. 2014; 12(4):307-16.
[Feasibility study for ambulatory surgery in emergency]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2013 Jun; 32(6):392-6.
Exploring the nature of interprofessional collaboration and family member involvement in an intensive care context. J Interprof Care. 2014 Jan; 28(1):74-5.
Child health care is a special issue: key developments in child health nursing research. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013 Jun; 50(6):713-6.
Differences in parents', nurses' and physicians' views of NICU parent support. Acta Paediatr. 2013 Jun; 102(6):590-6.
Lack of uniformity in the clinical assessment of children with lipomyelomeningocele: a review of the literature and recommendations for the future. Childs Nerv Syst. 2013 Jun; 29(6):961-70.
Acceptability of a minimally invasive perinatal/paediatric autopsy: healthcare professionals' views and implications for practice. Prenat Diagn. 2013 Apr; 33(4):307-12.
Knowledge translation of the HELPinKIDS clinical practice guideline for managing childhood vaccination pain: usability and knowledge uptake of educational materials directed to new parents. BMC Pediatr. 2013; 13:23.
How parents make sense of their young children's expressions of everyday pain: A qualitative analysis. Eur J Pain. 2012 Sep; 16(8):1166-75.
Pain and behaviour changes in children following surgery. Arch Dis Child. 2012 Oct; 97(10):879-84.
Parental involvement in neonatal comfort care. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2012 Nov-Dec; 41(6):786-97.
Parental involvement in neonatal pain management: an empirical and conceptual update. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2012 Mar; 44(1):45-54.
Infant sleep after immunization: randomized controlled trial of prophylactic acetaminophen. Pediatrics. 2011 Dec; 128(6):1100-8.
Gaining confidence and perspective: a phenomenological study of mothers' lived experiences caring for infants at home after neonatal unit discharge. J Adv Nurs. 2012 Sep; 68(9):2008-20.
Validity and generalizability of the Withdrawal Assessment Tool-1 (WAT-1) for monitoring iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome in pediatric patients. Pain. 2012 Jan; 153(1):142-8.
Parental anxiety and stress during children's hospitalisation: the StayClose study. J Child Health Care. 2011 Sep; 15(3):163-74.
Parent involvement in pain management for NICU infants: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2011 Sep; 128(3):510-8.
Special needs require special attention: a pilot project implementing the paediatric pain profile for children with profound neurological impairment in an in-patient setting following surgery. J Child Health Care. 2011 Sep; 15(3):210-20.
A comparison of pain measures in newborn infants after cardiac surgery. Pain. 2011 Aug; 152(8):1758-65.
Parental assessment of adolescent quality of life: can it replace self-assessment? Qual Life Res. 2011 Dec; 20(10):1715-20.
The influence of context on pain practices in the NICU: perceptions of health care professionals. Qual Health Res. 2011 Jun; 21(6):757-70.
Cranial osteopathy for children with cerebral palsy: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child. 2011 Jun; 96(6):505-12.
Family support and family-centered care in the neonatal intensive care unit: origins, advances, impact. Semin Perinatol. 2011 Feb; 35(1):20-8.
Feasibility of three electronic instruments in studying the benefits of adaptive seating. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2011; 6(6):483-90.
Translating the tears: parents' use of behavioural cues to detect pain in normally developing young children with everyday minor illnesses or injuries. Child Care Health Dev. 2010 Nov; 36(6):895-904.
Parent stress levels during children's hospital recovery after congenital heart surgery. Pediatr Cardiol. 2010 Oct; 31(7):961-8.
The stories of young people living with a liver transplant. Qual Health Res. 2010 Aug; 20(8):1076-90.
From tears to words: the development of language to express pain in young children with everyday minor illnesses and injuries. Child Care Health Dev. 2010 Jul; 36(4):524-33.
Influence of risk of neurological impairment and procedure invasiveness on health professionals' management of procedural pain in neonates. Eur J Pain. 2010 Aug; 14(7):735-41.
Systematic review of paediatric alert criteria for identifying hospitalised children at risk of critical deterioration. Intensive Care Med. 2010 Apr; 36(4):600-11.
Clinical trials: the viewpoint of children with a chronic illness compared with healthy children. Arch Dis Child. 2010 Mar; 95(3):229-32.
Study of the factors affecting health-related quality of life in adolescents after liver transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2009 May; 9(5):1179-88.
Putting pain assessment into practice: why is it so painful? Pain Res Manag. 2009 Jan-Feb; 14(1):13-20.
The experience of living with a chronic illness during adolescence: a critical review of the literature. J Clin Nurs. 2008 Dec; 17(23):3083-91.
Indicators of pain in neonates at risk for neurological impairment. J Adv Nurs. 2009 Feb; 65(2):285-96.
Long-term impact of neonatal intensive care and surgery on somatosensory perception in children born extremely preterm. Pain. 2009 Jan; 141(1-2):79-87.
The Withdrawal Assessment Tool-1 (WAT-1): an assessment instrument for monitoring opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms in pediatric patients. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2008 Nov; 9(6):573-80.
A concept analysis of health-related quality of life in young people with chronic illness. J Clin Nurs. 2008 Jul; 17(14):1823-33.
How well do clinical pain assessment tools reflect pain in infants? PLoS Med. 2008 Jun 24; 5(6):e129.
Changes in physiological and behavioural pain indicators over time in preterm and term infants at risk for neurologic impairment. Early Hum Dev. 2008 Nov; 84(11):731-8.
Parent participation in the care of hospitalized children: a systematic review. J Adv Nurs. 2008 Jun; 62(6):622-41.
The universe of developmental care: a new conceptual model for application in the neonatal intensive care unit. Adv Neonatal Care. 2008 Jun; 8(3):141-7.
In response to Foster J., Bidewell J., Buckmaster A., Lees S. & Henderson-Smart D. (2008) Parental stress and satisfaction in the non-tertiary special care nursery. Journal of Advanced Nursing61(5), 522-530. J Adv Nurs. 2008 May; 62(3):389-90.
Enquiring minds want to know: topics requested by users of a children's health information website. Patient Educ Couns. 2008 Jul; 72(1):168-71.
What helps when it hurts: children's views on pain relief. Child Care Health Dev. 2008 Jul; 34(4):430-8.
Here's an idea: ask the users! Young people's views on navigation, design and content of a health information website. J Child Health Care. 2007 Dec; 11(4):287-97.
Parental assessment and management of children's postoperative pain: a randomized clinical trial. J Child Health Care. 2007 Sep; 11(3):186-94.
Comparison of pain responses in infants of different gestational ages. Neonatology. 2008; 93(1):10-8.
Helping parents to help their child with procedural and everyday pain: practical, evidence-based advice. J Spec Pediatr Nurs. 2007 Jul; 12(3):203-9.
Intra-operative imaging in paediatric cardiac surgery: the reactions of parents who requested and watched a video of the surgery performed on their child. Cardiol Young. 2007 Aug; 17(4):407-13.
Determining the structure of acute pain responses in vulnerable neonates. Can J Nurs Res. 2007 Jun; 39(2):32-47.
Parental pain expectancy as a mediator between child expected and experienced procedure-related pain intensity during painful medical procedures. Clin J Pain. 2007 Jun; 23(5):392-9.
Making pain assessment more accessible to children and parents: can greater involvement improve the quality of care? Clin J Pain. 2007 May; 23(4):331-8.
Clinical trials: the viewpoint of children. Arch Dis Child. 2007 Aug; 92(8):712-3.
Should NICE evaluate complementary and alternative medicine? BMJ. 2007 Mar 10; 334(7592):506.
Long-term consequences of early infant injury and trauma upon somatosensory processing. Eur J Pain. 2007 Oct; 11(7):799-809.
Determining behavioural and physiological responses to pain in infants at risk for neurological impairment. Pain. 2007 Jan; 127(1-2):94-102.
The quality of parental consent for research with children: a prospective repeated measure self-report survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2007 May; 44(4):525-33.
The efficacy of morphine and Entonox analgesia during chest drain removal in children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2006 Mar; 16(3):302-8.
Identification of pain indicators for infants at risk for neurological impairment: a Delphi consensus study. BMC Pediatr. 2006; 6:1.
Chest drain removal pain and its management: a literature review. J Clin Nurs. 2006 Feb; 15(2):145-54.
Judgments of pain in the neonatal intensive care setting: a survey of direct care staffs' perceptions of pain in infants at risk for neurological impairment. Clin J Pain. 2006 Feb; 22(2):122-9.
Liver transplantation in children: part 1--peri-operative issues. J Child Health Care. 2005 Dec; 9(4):256-73.
Liver transplantation in children: part 2--long-term issues. J Child Health Care. 2005 Dec; 9(4):274-87.
Using the worldwide web to improve children's pain care. Int Nurs Rev. 2005 Sep; 52(3):204-9.
Fracture and non-fracture pain in children with osteogenesis imperfecta. Acta Paediatr. 2005 Sep; 94(9):1238-42.
Giving parents written information about children's anesthesia: are setting and timing important? Paediatr Anaesth. 2005 Jul; 15(7):547-53.
Guidelines for midwives by midwives. RCM Midwives. 2005 Jun; 8(6):270-2.
Research with newborn participants: doing the right research and doing it right. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2005 Apr-Jun; 19(2):177-86.
Parents' views about infant pain in neonatal intensive care. Clin J Pain. 2005 Mar-Apr; 21(2):133-9.
Measuring neonatal intensive care unit-related parental stress. J Adv Nurs. 2005 Mar; 49(6):608-15.
A critical review of the health-related quality of life of children and adolescents after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2005 Jan; 11(1):51-60; discussion 7-9.
Informing parents about anaesthesia for children's surgery: a critical literature review. Patient Educ Couns. 2005 Nov; 59(2):117-25.
Opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms in paediatric intensive care patients. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2004 Dec; 20(6):344-51.
Healthcare professionals' perceptions of pain in infants at risk for neurological impairment. BMC Pediatr. 2004 Nov 12; 4(1):23.
The symptom experience of hospitalised Chinese children and adolescents and relationship to pre-hospital factors and behaviour problems. Int J Nurs Stud. 2004 Aug; 41(6):661-9.
Ensuring quality information for patients: development and preliminary validation of a new instrument to improve the quality of written health care information. Health Expect. 2004 Jun; 7(2):165-75.
Exploring issues of parental consent to research: a case-study approach. Br J Nurs. 2004 Jun 24-Jul 7; 13(12):740-3.
Children with complex health care needs: supporting the child and family in the community. Child Care Health Dev. 2004 May; 30(3):191-2.
Re-thinking family-centred care across the continuum of children's healthcare. Child Care Health Dev. 2004 May; 30(3):265-77.
Psychosocial functioning of hospitalized Chinese adolescents and their families. J Pediatr Nurs. 2004 Apr; 19(2):95-103.
Behavioural, emotional and family functioning of hospitalized children in China and Hong Kong. Int Nurs Rev. 2004 Mar; 51(1):34-46.
Research participant information sheets are difficult to read. Bull Med Ethics. 2004 Feb; (195):13-6.
Parental concern and distress about infant pain. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2004 Jan; 89(1):F71-5.
Quality assurance for clinical research: challenges in implementing research governance in UK hospitals. Int J Health Care Qual Assur Inc Leadersh Health Serv. 2004; 17(4-5):239-47.
Parents' perceptions of their infant's pain experience in the NICU. Int J Nurs Stud. 2004 Jan; 41(1):51-8.
Are there opportunities to decrease nosocomial infection by choice of analgesic regimen? Evidence for immunity and pain interactions. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003 Nov; 157(11):1108-14.
Procedural pain in newborns at risk for neurologic impairment. Pain. 2003 Sep; 105(1-2):27-35.
Culturally appropriate family assessment: analysis of the Family Assessment Device in a pediatric Chinese population. J Nurs Meas. 2003 Spring-Summer; 11(1):41-60.
Parent visiting and participation in infant caregiving activities in a neonatal unit. Birth. 2003 Mar; 30(1):31-5.
Computer-taught coping techniques for venepuncture: preliminary findings from usability testing with children, parents and staff. J Child Health Care. 2003 Mar; 7(1):41-54.
Successful toxoplasmosis prophylaxis after orthotopic cardiac transplantation with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Transplantation. 2003 Feb 15; 75(3):339-43.
[The neonatal behavioral observation: a pertinent source of medical informations]. Arch Pediatr. 2002 Dec; 9(12):1274-9.
Some pain, some gain: reflections on the past two decades of neonatal pain research and treatment. Neonatal Netw. 2002 Aug; 21(5):37-41.
Reducing pain during blood sampling in infants. Clin Evid. 2002 Jun; (7):352-66.
Infant holding policies and practices in neonatal units. Neonatal Netw. 2002 Mar; 21(2):13-20.
Using quality improvement strategies to enhance pediatric pain assessment. Int J Qual Health Care. 2002 Feb; 14(1):39-47.
Assessment of sickle cell pain in children and young adults using the adolescent pediatric pain tool. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2002 Feb; 23(2):114-20.
Parent involvement in children's pain care: views of parents and nurses. J Adv Nurs. 2001 Nov; 36(4):591-9.
The safety and efficacy of peripheral intravenous catheters in ill neonates. Neonatal Netw. 2001 Aug; 20(5):33-8.
A pain in the act: musings on the meaning for critical care nurses of the pain management standards of the joint commission on accreditation of healthcare organizations. Crit Care Nurse. 2001 Jun; 21(3):8, 10, 12 passim.
Assessment and management of pain in neonates. Paediatr Drugs. 2001; 3(7):539-58.
For crying out loud: the ethical treatment of infants' pain. J Clin Ethics. 2001; 12(3):275-81.
Effect of less frequent bathing of preterm infants on skin flora and pathogen colonization. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2000 Nov-Dec; 29(6):584-9.
Long-term goals and normalization strategies of children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2000 Sep; 23(1):69-82.
Pain assessment in infants and children. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2000 Jun; 47(3):487-512.
Treatment of pain in the neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2000 Jun; 47(3):633-50.
Plasma norepinephrine levels, vagal tone index, and flexor reflex threshold in premature neonates receiving intravenous morphine during the postoperative period: a pilot study. Clin J Pain. 2000 Jun; 16(2):95-104.
Review of research studies that evaluated the impact of treatment for childhood cancers on neurocognition and behavioral and social competence: nursing implications. J Soc Pediatr Nurs. 2000 Apr-Jun; 5(2):57-74.
Relieving pain: what's in a name? Can J Nurs Res. 2000 Mar; 31(4):9-16.
Factors explaining lack of response to heel stick in preterm newborns. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 1999 Nov-Dec; 28(6):587-94.
Sleep disturbances in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. 1999 Nov; 104(5):e62.
Do cry features reflect pain intensity in preterm neonates? A preliminary study. Biol Neonate. 1999 Aug; 76(2):120-4.
Somatization, anxiety and depression as measures of health-related quality of life of children/adolescents with cancer. Int J Cancer Suppl. 1999; 12:52-7.
The efficacy of developmentally sensitive interventions and sucrose for relieving procedural pain in very low birth weight neonates. Nurs Res. 1999 Jan-Feb; 48(1):35-43.
Toward a standard of care for parents of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Crit Care Nurse. 1998 Oct; 18(5):62-4, 66-74.
Environmental and behavioral strategies to prevent and manage neonatal pain. Semin Perinatol. 1998 Oct; 22(5):434-43.
Opioid withdrawal in neonates after continuous infusions of morphine or fentanyl during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Am J Crit Care. 1998 Sep; 7(5):364-9.
Recognition and management of neonates at risk for perinatally acquired infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Crit Care Nurse. 1998 Aug; 18(4):74-85.
The use of intravenous opioids to provide analgesia in critically ill, premature neonates: a research critique. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1998 Jan; 15(1):41-69.
Measurement of neonatal responses to painful stimuli: a research review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1997 Dec; 14(6):343-78.
The ethical imperative to treat pain in infants: are we doing the best we can? Crit Care Nurse. 1997 Oct; 17(5):80-7.
Disruption of barrier function in neonatal skin associated with adhesive removal. J Pediatr. 1997 Sep; 131(3):367-72.
Comfort measures and analgesia. Neonatal Netw. 1997 Jun; 16(4):65.
Special needs of preterm infants in the management of pain and discomfort. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 1995 Nov-Dec; 24(9):856-62.
Measles pneumonia in the critically ill child: application of alternative ventilation strategies. Crit Care Nurse. 1995 Apr; 15(2):39, 43-9.
Assessment and management of opioid withdrawal in ill neonates. Neonatal Netw. 1995 Mar; 14(2):39-48.
Temporal dissociation of recovery from antinociceptive and motor effects following intrathecal administration of a selective mu-opioid agonist. Nurs Res. 1993 Nov-Dec; 42(6):344-8.
Skin-to-skin (kangaroo) holding of the intubated premature infant. Neonatal Netw. 1993 Sep; 12(6):49-57.
Disaster preparedness for the ICN: evolution and testing of one unit's plan. Pediatr Nurs. 1993 Mar-Apr; 19(2):122-7.
ECMO accidents: a survey of the incidence of mechanical failure and user error during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Neonatal Netw. 1992 Dec; 11(8):25-32.
The influence of sociopolitical, scientific, and technologic forces on the study and treatment of neonatal pain. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 1992 Sep; 15(1):11-20.
Dissociation of antinociceptive and motor effects of supraspinal opioid agonists in the rat. Brain Res. 1991 Nov 1; 563(1-2):123-6.
Issues regarding the use of analgesia and sedation in critically ill neonates. AACN Clin Issues Crit Care Nurs. 1991 Nov; 2(4):709-19.
Maintenance sedation of agitated infants in the neonatal intensive care unit with chloral hydrate: new concerns. J Perinatol. 1989 Jun; 9(2):162-4.
Pain in the nonverbal patient: advocating for the critically ill neonate. Pediatr Nurs. 1989 Jan-Feb; 15(1):65-8, 90.
Vitamin E levels in premature infants during and after intravenous multivitamin supplementation. Pediatrics. 1987 Nov; 80(5):680-3.
A national survey of the assessment and treatment of pain and agitation in the neonatal intensive care unit. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 1987 Nov-Dec; 16(6):387-93.
Persistently low blood retinol levels during and after parenteral feeding of very low birth weight infants: examination of losses into intravenous administration sets and a method of prevention by addition to a lipid emulsion. Pediatrics. 1987 Jun; 79(6):894-900.
Evaluation of a pediatric multiple vitamin preparation for total parenteral nutrition. II. Blood levels of vitamins A, D, and E. Pediatrics. 1986 Apr; 77(4):539-47.
Evaluation of a pediatric multiple vitamin preparation for total parenteral nutrition in infants and children. I. Blood levels of water-soluble vitamins. Pediatrics. 1986 Apr; 77(4):530-8.
A new method to quantitatively describe pain behavior in infants. Nurs Res. 1986 Jan-Feb; 35(1):28-31.
Linda Sturla Franck
+1 415 476-4433
2 Koret Way, Nursing, Rm 411F
UCSF Box 0606
San Francisco, CA 94143
United States
United States