Barbara Drew, RN, PhD, FAAN



My program of research focuses on expanding information obtained from electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings to improve clinical decision-making and patient outcomes in hospital and pre-hospital settings. I helped develop a monitoring strategy, “reduced lead set” technology, a method to derive a multi-lead electrocardiogram from a reduced number of electrodes. I was invited to present my research in reduced lead set technology at the Einthoven Foundation’s Celebration of 100 years of the Electrocardiogram in the Netherlands in 2002. Einthoven won a Nobel Prize for inventing the ECG machine in 1902, and this celebration acknowledged scientists who had made important and lasting contributions to the field.
Results of studies from my research laboratory (ECG Monitoring Research Lab in the School of Nursing) have informed the development of ST-segment (ischemia) monitoring algorithms for cardiac monitors. We discovered causes of false ischemia monitoring alarms, such as changes in a patient’s body position, which can alter waveforms and mimic the electrocardiographic changes of myocardial ischemia. Our publications provided evidence for the importance of ischemia monitoring in patients presenting to the emergency room with chest pain or treated in hospital units for acute coronary syndromes. A series of studies from my laboratory have shown that transient ischemia following treatment for acute coronary syndromes is: (1) usually missed with routine “arrhythmia” monitoring leads, (2) associated with poor hospital outcomes and, (3) most often (80%) clinically silent (asymptomatic). In addition, we were the first to publish that automated ST segment ischemia monitoring provided prognostic information above and beyond the initial standard 12-lead ECG in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
Realizing that the under-utilization of ischemia monitoring by clinicians in emergency rooms and hospital units was due to a lack of clarity about how to perform it, I organized an international group of experts to develop a practice guideline. The resultant report was entitled, Multi-lead ST-segment monitoring in patients with acute coronary syndromes: A consensus statement for healthcare professionals, published in 1999. This guideline has influenced clinical practice internationally.
Recent studies have focused on ECG monitoring in emergency rooms and pre-hospital settings. I helped design computer software for an ambulance device capable of monitoring patients for ischemia using reduced lead set technology and automatically transmitting abnormal ECGs by cell phone to the destination hospital. Results from our study show that this pre-hospital monitoring strategy increases paramedic utilization of pre-hospital ECG, reduces time from 911call to first ECG, and reduces hospital time to treatment for acute coronary syndrome.
I have also worked recently on another goal of hospital ECG monitoring: QT interval monitoring. By monitoring QT intervals in patients who are started on potentially pro-arrhythmic drugs, it may be possible to prevent the complication of torsade de pointes, a cause of sudden cardiac death in hospital settings. I advised engineers to design an automated QT interval measurement strategy that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2008. After implementing the QT monitoring system in the 5 critical care units at Stanford Hospitals & Clinics, we found that a high proportion (24%) of patients had dangerous QT interval prolongation episodes and that they were 3 times more likely to have in-hospital death. I believe this upgrade to cardiac monitors will save nursing time by eliminating the need for manual measurements and provide more frequent, reliable, and accurate measurement of the QT interval and may prevent cardiac arrests in hospital settings.
In collaboration with a professor at Yale School of Nursing, we have been funded by NHLBI for a 5-yr, multi-center randomized clinical trial to implement the American Heart Association Practice Standards for ECG Monitoring in Hospital Settings and to determine whether it will improve nurse monitoring behaviors, quality of care, and patient outcomes. We developed interactive educational computer modules recommending the best practices for arrhythmia, ischemia, and QT interval monitoring for use in the study.
Currently, I am conducting a pilot study in post-heart-transplant patients to determine whether an increase in the QT interval measured with a home ECG device and transmitted to my research laboratory is an early biomarker for acute cardiac allograft rejection. If this noninvasive biomarker proves sensitive for the detection of acute rejection, then I will submit a proposal for a randomized clinical trial comparing it with routine invasive endomyocardial biopsies.


Honors and Awards

NINR Director’s Lecture, National Institute for Nursing Research, NIH, 2014
Distinguished Scientist Award, American Heart Association, 2014
David Mortara Distinguished Professor, UCSF, 2013
Kenichi Harumi Plenary Address, International Society for Computerized Electrocardiology, 2010
Lillian & Dudley Aldous Professor in Nursing Science (Endowed Chair), UCSF, 2010
Distinguished Teaching Award, UCSF Division of the Academic Senate, 2009
Fulbright Senior Scientist Award, Institute of Nursing Science, University of Basel, Switzerland, 2006
26thHelen Nahm Research Lecture Award , UCSF School of Nursing , 2006
Outstanding Faculty Mentorship Award, UCSF Graduate Students’ Association , 2003
Distinguished Research Lecturer Award, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses , 2002
Katherine A. Lembright Award Lecture for achievement in cardiovascular nursing research, Council on , American Heart Association, 2001


In memoriam: A tribute to the work and lives of Ron Selvester and Rory Childers. J Electrocardiol. 2015 Nov-Dec; 48(6):1088-98.
Human factors approach to evaluate the user interface of physiologic monitoring. J Electrocardiol. 2015 Aug 21.
Computer-Assisted Interventions To Improve QTc Documentation in Patients Receiving QT-Prolonging Drugs. Am J Crit Care. 2015 Mar; 24(2):e6-e15.
Normal prehospital electrocardiography is linked to long-term survival in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome. J Electrocardiol. 2015 Jul-Aug; 48(4):520-6.
Reply: Nurse Practitioners (and Other Physician Extenders) Are Not an Appropriate Replacement for Expert Physician Electrocardiogram Readers in Routine Clinical Practice. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Jan 6; 65(1):107-8.
Novel approach to documenting expert ECG interpretation using eye tracking technology: A historical and biographical representation of the late Dr Rory Childers in action. J Electrocardiol. 2015 Jan-Feb; 48(1):43-4.
Insights into the problem of alarm fatigue with physiologic monitor devices: a comprehensive observational study of consecutive intensive care unit patients. PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e110274.
Integrating monitor alarms with laboratory test results to enhance patient deterioration prediction. J Biomed Inform. 2015 Feb; 53:81-92.
Finding ECG readers in clinical practice: is it time to change the paradigm? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Aug 5; 64(5):528.
Heart rate variability measured early in patients with evolving acute coronary syndrome and 1-year outcomes of rehospitalization and mortality. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2014; 10:451-64.
False ventricular tachycardia alarm suppression in the ICU based on the discrete wavelet transform in the ECG signal. J Electrocardiol. 2014 Nov-Dec; 47(6):775-80.
Heart rate variability measurement and clinical depression in acute coronary syndrome patients: narrative review of recent literature. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014; 10:1335-47.
Assessing computerized eye tracking technology for gaining insight into expert interpretation of the 12-lead electrocardiogram: an objective quantitative approach. J Electrocardiol. 2014 Nov-Dec; 47(6):895-906.
Hyperglycemia is associated with corrected QT prolongation and mortality in acutely ill patients. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2014 May-Jun; 29(3):264-70.
Prevalence and prognostic significance of long QT interval in patients with acute coronary syndrome: review of the literature. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2014 May-Jun; 29(3):271-9.
Electrocardiographic abnormalities in the first year after heart transplantation. J Electrocardiol. 2014 Mar-Apr; 47(2):135-9.
Arrhythmias in patients with acute coronary syndrome in the first 24 hours of hospitalization. Heart Lung. 2013 Nov-Dec; 42(6):422-7.
Prognostic value of heart rate turbulence for risk assessment in patients with unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2013; 9:465-73.
Prevalence and prognostic significance of long QT interval among patients with chest pain: selecting an optimum QT rate correction formula. J Electrocardiol. 2013 Jul-Aug; 46(4):336-42.
Prehospital electrocardiographic manifestations of acute myocardial ischemia independently predict adverse hospital outcomes. J Emerg Med. 2013 May; 44(5):955-61.
Complications of liver resection: laparoscopic versus open procedures. JSLS. 2013 Jan-Mar; 17(1):46-55.
Time dependent history improves QT interval estimation in atrial fibrillation. J Electrocardiol. 2012 Nov-Dec; 45(6):556-60.
Latency of ECG displays of hospital telemetry systems: a science advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2012 Sep 25; 126(13):1665-9.
Electrocardiographic characteristics of potential organ donors and associations with cardiac allograft use. Circ Heart Fail. 2012 Jul 1; 5(4):475-83.
Early versus late surgery for traumatic spinal cord injury: the results of a prospective Canadian cohort study. Spinal Cord. 2012 Nov; 50(11):840-3.
Quasi-experimental study to improve nurses' QT-interval monitoring: results of QTIP study. Am J Crit Care. 2012 May; 21(3):195-200; quiz 201.
Development and implementation of a critical pathway for patients with chest pain through action research. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2012 Dec; 11(4):466-71.
Feasibility and compliance with daily home electrocardiogram monitoring of the QT interval in heart transplant recipients. Heart Lung. 2012 Jul-Aug; 41(4):368-73.
Remote noninvasive allograft rejection monitoring for heart transplant recipients: study protocol for the novel evaluation with home electrocardiogram and remote transmission (NEW HEART) study. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2012; 12:14.
High prevalence of corrected QT interval prolongation in acutely ill patients is associated with mortality: results of the QT in Practice (QTIP) Study. Crit Care Med. 2012 Feb; 40(2):394-9.
Prehospital electrocardiography: a review of the literature. J Emerg Nurs. 2012 Jan; 38(1):9-14.
Prehospital 12-lead ST-segment monitoring improves the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. J Electrocardiol. 2012 May-Jun; 45(3):266-71.
A simple strategy improves prehospital electrocardiogram utilization and hospital treatment for patients with acute coronary syndrome (from the ST SMART Study). Am J Cardiol. 2011 Feb 1; 107(3):347-52.
Standardization of electrode placement for continuous patient monitoring: introduction of an assessment tool to compare proposed electrocardiogram lead configurations. J Electrocardiol. 2011 Mar-Apr; 44(2):115-8.
The new universal definition of myocardial infarction criteria improve electrocardiographic diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. J Electrocardiol. 2011 Jan-Feb; 44(1):69-73.
How many patients need QT interval monitoring in critical care units? Preliminary report of the QT in Practice study. J Electrocardiol. 2010 Nov-Dec; 43(6):572-6.
Unnecessary arrhythmia monitoring and underutilization of ischemia and QT interval monitoring in current clinical practice: baseline results of the Practical Use of the Latest Standards for Electrocardiography trial. J Electrocardiol. 2010 Nov-Dec; 43(6):542-7.
Prevention of torsade de pointes in hospital settings: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Mar 2; 55(9):934-47.
Implementation of the guidelines for the management of patients with chest pain through a critical pathway approach improves length of stay and patient satisfaction but not anxiety. Crit Pathw Cardiol. 2010 Mar; 9(1):30-4.
Prevention of torsade de pointes in hospital settings: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation. 2010 Mar 2; 121(8):1047-60.
Initial ECG acquisition within 10 minutes of arrival at the emergency department in persons with chest pain: time and gender differences. J Emerg Nurs. 2011 Jan; 37(1):109-12.
Development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Patient Perspective of Arrhythmia Questionnaire. Res Nurs Health. 2009 Oct; 32(5):504-16.
Patient perception of symptoms and quality of life following ablation in patients with supraventricular tachycardia. Heart Lung. 2010 Jan-Feb; 39(1):12-20.
Overcoming barriers to developing seamless ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction care systems in the United States: recommendations from a comprehensive Prehospital 12-lead Electrocardiogram Working Group. J Electrocardiol. 2009 Sep-Oct; 42(5):426-31.
Sequence of electrocardiographic and acoustic cardiographic changes and angina during coronary occlusion and reperfusion in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2009 Apr; 14(2):137-46.
Diastolic heart sounds as an adjunctive diagnostic tool with ST criteria for acute myocardial ischemia. Acute Card Care. 2009; 11(4):229-35.
Frequency of diastolic third and fourth heart sounds with myocardial ischemia induced during percutaneous coronary intervention. J Electrocardiol. 2009 Jan-Feb; 42(1):39-45.
Standardization of reduced and optimal lead sets for continuous electrocardiogram monitoring: where do we stand? J Electrocardiol. 2008 Nov-Dec; 41(6):458-65.
Implementation and integration of prehospital ECGs into systems of care for acute coronary syndrome: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research, Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, and Council on Clinical Cardiology. Circulation. 2008 Sep 2; 118(10):1066-79.
QT/QTc interval monitoring in the emergency department. J Emerg Nurs. 2008 Oct; 34(5):428-34.
Standardizing electrocardiographic leads: introduction to a symposium. J Electrocardiol. 2008 May-Jun; 41(3):187-9.
Pseudo myocardial injury patterns because of nonstandard electrocardiogram electrode placement. J Electrocardiol. 2008 May-Jun; 41(3):202-4.
Management of cocaine-associated chest pain and myocardial infarction: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Acute Cardiac Care Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology. Circulation. 2008 Apr 8; 117(14):1897-907.
Estimated body surface potential maps in emergency department patients with unrecognized transient myocardial ischemia. J Electrocardiol. 2007 Nov-Dec; 40(6 Suppl):S15-20.
Karhunen-Loève representation distinguishes ST-T wave morphology differences in emergency department chest pain patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction versus nonacute coronary syndrome. J Electrocardiol. 2007 Nov-Dec; 40(6 Suppl):S145-9.
Dynamic tracking of ischemia in the surface electrocardiogram. J Electrocardiol. 2007 Nov-Dec; 40(6 Suppl):S179-86.
Pulling it all together: case studies on ECG monitoring. AACN Adv Crit Care. 2007 Jul-Sep; 18(3):305-17.
Preventing torsades de pointes by careful cardiac monitoring in hospital settings. AACN Adv Crit Care. 2007 Jul-Sep; 18(3):285-93.
Atrial electrograms after cardiac surgery: survey of clinical practice. Am J Crit Care. 2007 Jul; 16(4):350-6; quiz 357; discussion 358-9.
Development of systems of care for ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients: policy recommendations. Circulation. 2007 Jul 10; 116(2):e73-6.
Critical care nurses in industry: deserters or leaders? Am J Crit Care. 2007 May; 16(3):204-5.
The role of nurses in a chest pain unit. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2007 Dec; 6(4):265-72.
Novel electrocardiogram configurations and transmission procedures in the prehospital setting: effect on ischemia and arrhythmia determination. J Electrocardiol. 2006 Oct; 39(4 Suppl):S157-60.
Pitfalls and artifacts in electrocardiography. Cardiol Clin. 2006 Aug; 24(3):309-15, vii.
Prospective analysis of prevalence, distribution, and rate of recovery of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 2006 Jul; 105(1):15-20.
Practice standards for ECG monitoring in hospital settings: executive summary and guide for implementation. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2006 Jun; 18(2):157-68, ix.
Phonocardiographic timing of third and fourth heart sounds during acute myocardial infarction. J Electrocardiol. 2006 Jul; 39(3):305-9.
Predictors of left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2006; 4(3):199-205.
Acute neurocardiogenic injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Circulation. 2005 Nov 22; 112(21):3314-9.
Designing prehospital ECG systems for acute coronary syndromes. Lessons learned from clinical trials involving 12-lead ST-segment monitoring. J Electrocardiol. 2005 Oct; 38(4 Suppl):180-5.
Practical implementation of the Guidelines for Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Aug; 46(2):185-97.
Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels are associated with early cardiac dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2005 Jul; 36(7):1567-9.
Practical implementation of the guidelines for unstable angina/non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the emergency department: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology (Subcommittee on Acute Cardiac Care), Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, and Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group, in Collaboration With the Society of Chest Pain Centers. Circulation. 2005 May 24; 111(20):2699-710.
AHA scientific statement: practice standards for electrocardiographic monitoring in hospital settings: an American Heart Association Scientific Statement from the Councils on Cardiovascular Nursing, Clinical Cardiology, and Cardiovascular Disease in the Young: endorsed by the International Society of Computerized electrocardiology and the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2005 Mar-Apr; 20(2):76-106.
Age and aneurysm position predict patterns of left ventricular dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2005 Feb; 18(2):168-74.
Prevalence and implications of diastolic dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2005; 3(2):132-8.
Practice standards for electrocardiographic monitoring in hospital settings: an American Heart Association scientific statement from the Councils on Cardiovascular Nursing, Clinical Cardiology, and Cardiovascular Disease in the Young: endorsed by the International Society of Computerized Electrocardiology and the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. Circulation. 2004 Oct 26; 110(17):2721-46.
Predictors of neurocardiogenic injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2004 Feb; 35(2):548-51.
Pre-hospital synthesized 12-lead ECG ischemia monitoring with trans-telephonic transmission in acute coronary syndromes: pilot study results of the ST SMART trial. J Electrocardiol. 2004; 37 Suppl:214-21.
Optimal leads, estimation, and continuous monitoring improve detection of acute MI and transient ischemia. J Electrocardiol. 2004; 37 Suppl:240-3.
Frequency and outcomes of transient myocardial ischemia in critically ill adults admitted for noncardiac conditions. Am J Crit Care. 2003 Nov; 12(6):508-16; discussion 517.
The electrocardiogram in ST elevation acute myocardial infarction: correlation with coronary anatomy and prognosis. Postgrad Med J. 2003 Sep; 79(935):490-504.
Transient myocardial ischemia is an independent predictor of adverse in-hospital outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated in the telemetry unit. Heart Lung. 2003 Mar-Apr; 32(2):71-8.
Factors to consider when analyzing 12-lead electrocardiograms for evidence of acute myocardial ischemia. Am J Crit Care. 2003 Jan; 12(1):9-16; quiz 17-8.
Association of transient myocardial ischemia with adverse in-hospital outcomes for angina patients treated in a telemetry unit or a coronary care unit. Am J Crit Care. 2002 Jul; 11(4):318-25.
Celebrating the 100th birthday of the electrocardiogram: lessons learned from research in cardiac monitoring. Am J Crit Care. 2002 Jul; 11(4):378-86; quiz 387-8.
Frequency, characteristics, and clinical significance of transient ST segment elevation in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Eur Heart J. 2002 Jun; 23(12):941-7.
Comparison of a new reduced lead set ECG with the standard ECG for diagnosing cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia. J Electrocardiol. 2002; 35 Suppl:13-21.
Efficacy of 2 strategies to detect body position ST-segment changes during continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic monitoring. J Electrocardiol. 2002; 35 Suppl:193-200.
Electrocardiographic repolarization abnormalities in subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Electrocardiol. 2002; 35 Suppl:257-62.
The first ISCE Board of "Trustees" overview panel session: ischemia monitoring, state of the art. International Society of Computerized Electrocardiology. J Electrocardiol. 2002; 35 Suppl:207-30.
Clinical consequences of ST-segment changes caused by body position mimicking transient myocardial ischemia: hazards of ST-segment monitoring? J Electrocardiol. 2001 Jul; 34(3):261-4.
End-of-life issues in intensive care units: a national random survey of nurses' knowledge and beliefs. Am J Crit Care. 2001 Jul; 10(4):216-29.
New electrocardiographic criteria for posterior wall acute myocardial ischemia validated by a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty model of acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2001 Apr 15; 87(8):970-4; A4.
Lead wire reversal during 12-lead EKG monitoring. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2001; 16(1):35-6.
How a rhythm strip aids in clinical diagnosis. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2001; 16(2):88.
Upper airway complications in children after bone marrow transplantation. Laryngoscope. 2000 Sep; 110(9):1446-51.
Prehospital delay time in acute myocardial infarction: an exploratory study on relation to hospital outcomes and cost. Am Heart J. 2000 May; 139(5):788-96.
Real-time application of continuous 12-lead ST-segment monitoring: 3 case studies. Crit Care Nurse. 2000 Apr; 20(2):93-9.
How is atrial tachycardia differentiated from atrial flutter? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2000; 15(4):151, 153.
Thoracic location of the lead with maximal ST-segment deviation during posterior and right ventricular ischemia: comparison of 18-lead ECG with 192 estimated body surface leads. J Electrocardiol. 2000; 33 Suppl:167-74.
Has this patient lost his lead? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2000; 15(3):113.
Why should nurses closely monitor the ECG during insertion or exchange of a central venous catheter? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2000; 15(1):29, 31.
Thoughts of hastening death among hospice patients. J Clin Ethics. 2000; 11(1):56-65.
What life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism results in prominent U waves on the EKG? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 2000; 15(2):69-70.
Multilead ST-segment monitoring in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a consensus statement for healthcare professionals. ST- Segment Monitoring Practice Guideline International Working Group. Am J Crit Care. 1999 Nov; 8(6):372-86; quiz 387-8.
Frequency of ischemia during intracoronary ultrasound in women with and without coronary artery disease. Crit Care Nurse. 1999 Oct; 19(5):48-56.
Frequency of silent myocardial ischemia with 12-lead ST segment monitoring in the coronary care unit: are there sex-related differences? Heart Lung. 1999 Mar-Apr; 28(2):81-6.
Comparison of 18-lead ECG and selected body surface potential mapping leads in determining maximally deviated ST lead and efficacy in detecting acute myocardial ischemia during coronary occlusion. J Electrocardiol. 1999; 32 Suppl:30-7.
What is the most serious complication for patients with anorexia nervosa? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1999; 14(2):75-6.
What is the most common arrhythmia following cardiac revascularization? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1999; 14(4):159, 161.
Does recording of a patient's ST segment "fingerprint" during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) help to exclude coronary artery reocclusion as the cause of transient ischemia following the procedure? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1999; 14(3):115-6.
Accuracy of the EASI 12-lead electrocardiogram compared to the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram for diagnosing multiple cardiac abnormalities. J Electrocardiol. 1999; 32 Suppl:38-47.
Could inaccurate lead placement cause misdiagnosis of the culprit artery in patients with acute myocardial infarction? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1999; 14(1):33-4.
Peak time of occurrence of myocardial ischemia in the coronary care unit. Am J Crit Care. 1998 Nov; 7(6):411-7.
12-lead ST-segment monitoring vs single-lead maximum ST-segment monitoring for detecting ongoing ischemia in patients with unstable coronary syndromes. Am J Crit Care. 1998 Sep; 7(5):355-63.
Bedside diagnosis of myocardial ischemia with ST-segment monitoring technology: measurement issues for real-time clinical decision making and trial designs. J Electrocardiol. 1998; 30 Suppl:157-65.
The many rhythms of digitalis toxicity. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1998; 13(1):41.
Use of the EKG in risk stratification. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1998; 13(2):32-3.
Cardiac arrhythmias with aging. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1998; 13(4):31.
Differential diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardia. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1998; 13(3):46-7.
Estimating ischemic burden: comparison of two formulas. Am J Crit Care. 1997 Nov; 6(6):463-6.
Body position effects on the ECG: implication for ischemia monitoring. J Electrocardiol. 1997 Oct; 30(4):285-91.
Frequency, duration, magnitude, and consequences of myocardial ischemia during intracoronary ultrasonography. Am Heart J. 1997 Sep; 134(3):474-8.
Assisted suicide: implications for nurses and nursing. Nurs Outlook. 1997 Sep-Oct; 45(5):209-14.
The utilization of automated ST segment analysis in the determination of myocardial ischemia. AANA J. 1997 Aug; 65(4):351-6.
Risk of thromboembolism in chronic atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Apr 15; 79(8):1043-7.
Computer versus manual measurement of ST-segment deviation. J Electrocardiol. 1997 Apr; 30(2):151-6.
Comparison of standard and derived 12-lead electrocardiograms for diagnosis of coronary angioplasty-induced myocardial ischemia. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Mar 1; 79(5):639-44.
Frequency of disabling symptoms in supraventricular tachycardia. Am J Cardiol. 1997 Jan 15; 79(2):145-9.
Is it safe to inject adenosine through a central line? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1997; 12(1):47-8.
What's wrong with this atrial fibrillation? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1997; 12(2):40.
An unexpected ST segment deviation during an exercise treadmill test. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1997; 12(3):40-1.
Hyperkalemia: a dangerous diagnosis for patients with congestive heart failure. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1997; 12(4):36-7.
Chest pain is an unreliable measure of ischemia in men and women during PTCA. Heart Lung. 1996 Nov-Dec; 25(6):423-9.
ST segment monitoring with a derived 12-lead electrocardiogram is superior to routine cardiac care unit monitoring. Am J Crit Care. 1996 May; 5(3):198-206.
Diagnosing ischemia from the bedside monitor. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1996; 11(1):45-6.
"Relative" sinus bradycardia. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1996; 11(3):47-8.
ST segment deviation during myocardial ischemia: are there gender differences? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1996; 11(3):4-9.
Does AV dissociation always mean heart block? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1996; 11(4):47-8.
Computer versus manual measurement of ST-segment deviation. J Electrocardiol. 1996; 29 Suppl:78-82.
ECG criteria to distinguish between aberrantly conducted supraventricular tachycardia and ventricular tachycardia: practical aspects for the immediate care setting. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1995 Dec; 18(12 Pt 1):2194-208.
Monitoring paced rhythms. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1995; 10(4):44-5.
Regular atrial fibrillation spells trouble. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1995; 10(3):44-5.
Right ventricular infarction. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1995; 10(2):45-6.
Pediatric tachycardias. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1995; 10(1):46, 48.
Value of a derived 12-lead ECG for detecting transient myocardial ischemia. J Electrocardiol. 1995; 28 Suppl:211.
Electrocardiographic changes in critically ill adults during intrahospital transport. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1994; 9(4):4-12.
Causes of sinus pauses. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1994; 9(1):48.
T wave alternans. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1994; 9(4):45.
Aberration versus ectopy. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1994; 9(3):46.
Derived 12-lead ECG. Comparison with the standard ECG during myocardial ischemia and its potential application for continuous ST-segment monitoring. J Electrocardiol. 1994; 27 Suppl:249-55.
Safety and efficacy of central intravenous bolus administration of adenosine for termination of supraventricular tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993 Sep; 22(3):741-5.
ST segment monitoring for coronary artery reocclusion following thrombolytic therapy and coronary angioplasty: identification of optimal bedside monitoring leads. Am J Crit Care. 1993 Jul; 2(4):280-92.
ST segment monitoring for myocardial ischemia. AACN Clin Issues Crit Care Nurs. 1993 Feb; 4(1):34-43.
Bedside electrocardiogram monitoring. AACN Clin Issues Crit Care Nurs. 1993 Feb; 4(1):25-33.
How can you distinguish supraventricular tachycardia with a bundle branch block from ventricular tachycardia? Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1993; 8(1):48.
Using cardiac leads the right way. Nursing. 1992 May; 22(5):50-4.
Comparison of a vectorcardiographically derived 12-lead electrocardiogram with the conventional electrocardiogram during wide QRS complex tachycardia, and its potential application for continuous bedside monitoring. Am J Cardiol. 1992 Mar 1; 69(6):612-8.
Bedside electrocardiographic monitoring: state of the art for the 1990s. Heart Lung. 1991 Nov; 20(6):610-23.
Accuracy of bedside electrocardiographic monitoring: a report on current practices of critical care nurses. Heart Lung. 1991 Nov; 20(6):597-607.
Value of electrocardiographic leads MCL1, MCL6 and other selected leads in the diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991 Oct; 18(4):1025-33.
MCL1 and MCL6 compared to V1 and V6 in distinguishing aberrant supraventricular from ventricular ectopic beats. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1991 Sep; 14(9):1375-83.
Bedside diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardia. Crit Care Nurs Q. 1991 Aug; 14(2):19-29.
Device therapy for ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation: the implantable cardioverter defibrillator and antitachycardia pacing. Crit Care Nurs Q. 1991 Aug; 14(2):60-71.
Cardiac rhythm responses. 2. Review of 22 years of nursing research. Heart Lung. 1989 Mar; 18(2):184-91.
Cardiac rhythm responses. 1. An important phenomenon for nursing practice, science, and research. Heart Lung. 1989 Jan; 18(1):8-16.
Differentiation of wide QRS complex tachycardias: implications for critical care nursing. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1987 Oct-Dec; 2(4):130-8.
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